Chapter 1 Essay writing

1. THE EDUCATIVE VALUE OF INTERNET
OR THE WONDERS OF INTERNET

Introduction : Internet is a network of networks which connects computers worldwide through the standardized communication protocols. Examples are TCP/IP. By using them, we can access information at any computer.

Value of Internet : Internet makes the students and other seekers of education

  1. It enables them to have studied and learnt a lot of things of a high standard. To illustrate, a student of History clicks and the desired data come before him. A student of Political Science clicks and the whole universe comes before him. He comes to know about the names of the Heads of the Government. He comes to know about the current skirmishes, battles sabotage going on in any corner of the world. A student of Geography clicks and the globe with geographical demarcations comes before him. A competitor clicks and the current events going on all over the globe are displayed before him.
  2. When the examination paper is on the next day, the student clicks and in a jiffy gets the requisite information.
  3. Students are helped by internet in getting their projects prepared.
  4. They get participated in extra-curricular activities and many more.
  5. They can contact their teachers online to discuss some unsolved questions. They may contact their class fellows on line for many purposes.
  6. The books grow old by the passage of time, the information and data become obsolete but the internet replenishes them with the up to date information. In the field of education, the latest books are essential. We go to procure the latest edition of a particular book. But the latest edition takes not less than four months in reaching the hand of the student after it has been published. On the other hand, the latest edition is before the eyes of the student in a jiffy as soon as he clicks.
  7. A great difficulty is faced by the students in attempting objective questions like ‘fill in the blanks”, “True/False statements, ‘antonyms,”synonyms’, ‘one word substitution’ and ‘completion of the sentence’. He finds himself helpless in verifying if the answer that is in his mind is correct. Even some person well-versed in language will take a minute or two in verifying the correctness of his answer. Moreover, he cannot be available to each student individually. But the click is all the time beside the student ready at any time, whether midnight or early in morning to answer to his querries. No need to go through voluminous Dictionaries, heavy books titled ‘Words Bank’ and other exhaustive books of the like type. Conclusion : To conclude the Internet has an incomparable educative value.

2. YOUTH UNREST OR STUDENT UNREST

Introduction : The youth unrest is, sometimes, described ‘Student Revolt, ‘Student Power’ and ‘Student Activism.

The Awful Position : The last three decades have seen innumerable outbursts of student power in many nations of the world Gareth Stedman Jonse remarks ‘From Berlin to Peking, from Tokyo to Newyork, in Paris and in Prague, the rise of these movements (student movement) has changed the nature of politics. The fact is that every government has some reason or the other to fear its students, with good reason.

Role of Student in the Past : If we go back, we find that from Cuba in 1958, Czechoslovakia and France in 1968, the students have played a crucial role in political changes.

At present, in Germany the Socialist Student Union declared that students have no faith in political parties and parliament. They threatened to take democracy into the streets. In Italy student strike was accompanied by an ‘anti university stance. It marked the happening at Turia and other Universities including those of Naples, Bologna etc. In Feb. 1968, the disturbances in the Belgian university of Louviah led to the downfall of the Belgian Government. In Czechoslovakia in the movement towards liberalism the students and the youth union joined hands with the workers.

In the USA, the anti-Vietnam and civil rights issues led to confrontation between the students and authorities. In May-June 1968, battles were f fought between demonstrators and police. The students and workers made violent attack. In Sorbonne, the students bycotted examinations and occupied the buildings. Minister of Education had to resign. This event led to the downfall of De Gaulle. In England confrontation between radicals and the authorities took place in London school of economics. In Indonesia, the students and the army militated against communism. It led to the downfall of the Soekarno regime.

Student Activism in India : In India some years ago, student activism was seen in different parts of the country. A quarrel took place between the staff of the bus transport and a group of students. This led to massive demonstrations and strikes in the whole of MP and UP. A change in the method of payment of examination fees resulted in total strike in Lucknow University. A demand for a steel plant brought the students on the street. On the issue of Vietnam, Calcutta students got an opportunity to agitate. In Vidarbha regions of Maharashtra an agitation was started demanding an Agricultural University.

In Jammu and Kashmir a demand for reforms in the Agricultural University led to agitation. A few rusticated student leaders with the aid of some politicians led to the closure of the Banaras Hindu University. Rivalry between two groups of students one favouring the Vice Chancellor and the other the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh led to the Telangana Agitation. Anti-hindi agitation led to the closure of all the colleges in Karnataka. Semester system led to the agitation made by the students of the Mysore University. The Nav-Nirmana Andolana of Gujarat toppled down Chiman Bhai Patels’ Government and later on led to the Chhatra Sangharsha Samities. It was guided by Late Sh. Jaya Prakash Narayan. The Assamese Agitation was spearheaded by the All Assam Students Union. It was supported by the Gana Sangrama Parishad.

Conclusion : To conclude, we must delve deep into the students unrest, various reasons responsible for its out break and take prompt and effective remedial as well as preventive steps. It is obligatory on the Intellectualists and the Government to find out the reasons responsible for such out break from time to time and take curative steps.

3. HOW TO KEEP FIT IN RAPIDLY
CHANGING ENVIRONMENT

Introduction : It is needless to say that health is wealth. Nothing is more important than health and fitness for any human being. Healthy and fit people really enjoy their life happily and peacefully. An unhealthy person cannot enjoy life in full extent. He/She cannot enjoy eating, watching sports or other luxury of the life.

Health Consciousness : It is observed that the people are being towards their health and fitness as the time changes. Male wants to have a muscle bound body whereas female a slim and trim look. Everybody is doing lots of struggle on daily basis to achieve a perfect body.

Changed Environment and the Problem of Keeping Fit : In the changed environment, the problem of maintaining health is becoming more and more complicated. The cut-throat competition is going on everywhere. Wants and desires are surpassing our means. Prices are soaring high. Food stuff is adulterated. Pollution has begun to affect our respiratory system adversely. Junk food is tempting our children and youngsters. Everybody’s happiness is eclipsed by tension, strain, worries. Hence most of the people always lack of being fit. Mental tension gradually deteriorates the healthy condition of the body and makes it weak. Most of us have sedentary life style. All of this results in obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure constipation and allied diseases.

Measures for Maintaining Health : We must leave bed before the first ray of the sun. Roads are free from any smoke emitted by vehicles. We should walk as fast as we can. There shall be greater intake of oxygen. Our pancreas will work faster and produce more insulin that will control the amount of sugar in the blood. When we return home we should do exercise. After taking some rest, take a bath and begin other activities. We must lay emphasis on going on foot for short distances within the city. Take healthy food avoiding too much fats and spices. We should not make haste while taking food, because the food not well chewed is not well digested. When it is not well digested its nutrients are not absorbed by the intestines etc. While taking food we must be free from any tension, otherwise we will derive no advantage from it. As we know that there is no alternate to the hard work, there is no alternate to the health and fitness. Psychological health is essential with the physical health. We need to think positive to remain mentally healthy. We should select stairs instead of elevator, use cycle instead of bike or scooty for the nearby areas and walk to the next bus stop.

Positive Thinking : Remember God is great far greater than those who hurt your feelings, try to cause you harm. Never think over to take revenge on them. If you think of taking revenge, your thinking would harm your health not of his. The mental tranquility is pre-requisite for healthy life.

Conclusion : To conclude, it is essential to take precautions for the maintenance of health in the present critical times when the environment is polluted, food-stuff is adulterated, vegetables have been sprinkled over harmful chemicals, medicines are duplicate and nothing is healthful.

4. YOUR VIEWS ON TERRORISM
OR TERRORISM-A CURSE

Introduction : Terrorism can be defined as the unlawful act done by the group of people, by the unofficial or unauthorised use of violence. The purpose is to create terror and fear among common people to achieve their targets. Some of their main aims are personal selfish ends, social (infact anti social) religious, political and ideological etc.

The Present Position of Terrorism : At present, terrorism is the most formidable issue. People are all the times afraid of terrcrisin and terrorists’ attack.

Mishandled By Various Elements : Terrorism is used by various social organisations, politicians and business industries. The terrorists have or observe no rule and law.

Purposes and Goals of Terrorists : Their purpose behind using violent means is to create and enhance the level of terror in the society and country. Their primary target are civilians. Their primary goal is to get their demand fulfilled by the Government of that country. They contact online, social media or newspaper, magazine etc. to spread their voices to the public and the government. Sometimes terrorist attack is done to fulfil the religious and ideological goal. In this sort of terrorism, the focus is on the believers in some religion other than that of theirs.

My Views : My views are similar to those of Dr. Vibasi. Dr. Vibasi opines that most of the terrorists are very common people. Somehow they have lost control over the mind because of unfair, unnatural disasters or unfair activities with them by others. These activities make them unable to fulfil their desires in normal and accepted ways. Slowly they are taken under the confidence of some bad people who promise them the fulfilment of their desires. They turn terrorists. Thus, the terrorists get affected most of the youths of the country, their growth and development. Terrorists call themselves brave soldiers, while they are coward murderers. The brave or real soldiers, unlike them, fight for the cause of their countrymen, their purposes are fair.

Terrorism In our Country : In our country, terrorism is widening its area and formidable form. Earlier terrorism was limited to some areas like Jammu and Kashmir. But now, it has spread almost to all the areas specially regions of north-eastern India. Lately the terroristic activities took place in the Taj Mahal and Nariman House in Mumbai. In that attack many people had lost their lives and many suffered financial loss. It has pushed the nation many years back from the proper development.

Need of the Hour : It is essential for us to take the bull by its horns. We all should present the solution of the problem at International level. We should aim at finishing it from the root. We should form a strong policy to completely destroy its kingdom as well as remove the striking terror from the human minds. Conclusion : To conclude, it is essential for the Government to understand the root causes of the youths’ turning terrorists and take step to bring them back to the mainstream of the country.

5. TRUE JOURNALISM

Meaning of Journalism : Journalism is a profession of unveiling truth bringing facts in front of people. It was a profession of honor. Journalism can be explained as the challenge of satisfying the space or it is a discipline of assembling authenticating, covering and analyzing information drawn together regarding current events including development, problems and people.

Functions of Journalism : Journalism informs society about itself and makes public that which would otherwise be private. Those who practise journalism are known as journalists. Journalism plays a vital role in society. Different journalists have different view points. Some say that it is important to go into the depth of the issue and trace back its history. Some others opine that the only important thing is to put the facts as it is in reality.

Essentiality of True Journalism : It is essential that Journalism must be true to its nature and purpose. It must not be a game of splashing and money-making. The journalists need to glance further than the expected confines of politics and journalism. The issues, facts and information donot come from the outside. Instead they are produced with in the society. The journalist has to extract the importan matter and make it into news.

Different Views about the News : Some journalists think that it is not important to understand the background of the news. They believe that the truth and the honest facts should reach nation as they are in real. No manipulation should be done to the facts to show the concerned people in a positive spot light. The facts should be made public, no matter how gross they might be. Some journalists think that in journalism assertions should be reported as if they were true. It makes no difference whether they have been stranded in a through process of confirmation.

Revelation and Presentation of Facts : Journalism should prefer the truth based journalism. At present, the political conditions all around the world have gravely worsened. Hence it is important to give the right facts and timely information to the public.

Journalism Ą Tool : Journalism must be a tool to effect the needed change in society. The present practice of keeping an eye on fatty salary and promotion should be given up. Besides, the aim of beating their counter part should be given up.

Journalism : Mirror of Society : Journalism should continue to be the mirror of the society. Dr. Vibasi ‘present 3D picture of a topic’. He means to say that the journalist should present the thesis as well as the anti-thesis and synthesis as well of any topic.

Conclusion : To conclude, a true journalist should present the real picture of the issue. Thereafter, the other aspect of the picture implying what some other allege should be presented. It must be followed by his own synthesis. It should not neither favour nor be prejudiced.

6. SPORTS AND STUDENTS

Introduction : Sports and students are closely related. Sports are essential for students. This is the reason why emphasis is laid on sports in scho and sports day/sports week is celebrated.

Sports-explained : Sports can be defined as forms of competitive physical activity played by the people through casual or organized participation.

Necessity of the Sports : Sports help the students to improve and maintain physical ability and skills. Learning in the class adds to their mental development whole sports outside the classroom aids to their physical fitness and development. Education is indispensable for the students to earn livelihood, start a good career, get name and fame when they grow up. In the same way, to get a sound mind and body he must carry on some type of physical activities or the other and all of this is provided to him by the sports.

Advantages of Outdoor Games : The outdoor games provide a student with physical strength as well as increase his mental powers. In this category come the sports like football, cricket, volley ball, hockey, running etc.

Advantages of Indoor Games : Some Indoor games and sports like brain games, chess, Sudoku etc. improve mental power and concentration level of the player.

Necessity of Games for Students : Students of today are the buds that would blossom tomorrow and then grow into fruits. They would adopt various professions, vocations and make their career in different fields. If we see back for a while in the history or put some lights on the life of any successful person, we see that name, fame and money earning never come easily. Instead, it needs a dedication continuity, patience and above all some physical activities. These imply physical and mental health that are essential for healthy survival and success. Sports are nice way to get engaged in the physical activities which benefit a lot..

Positive Effect on Limbs : When a person runs, the muscles of legs do extra work. When he lifts up something, the limbs of arms do extra work. While he plays his limbs move and the blood circulates through his veins faster. The whole of the body becomes active. He gains vigour and zeal. Intake of fresh air and exertion during the game makes him hungry. After a tiring game he enjoys sound sleep.

Sports Conducive to Various Qualities : Sports make the sportman bold and brave. He learns to maintain his mental equilibrium under all conditions. He learns the art of facing the problems of life with a smile. The games teach him to be disciplined. The reason is only a disciplined team wins the game. A player cannot play as he likes. Cooperation and adherence to rules of the game is a precondition to win the match. He learns to sacrifice his petty selfish interests for the sake of others’ welfare. The qualities like cooperation fellow-feeling and fraternity are learnt in the field. Games take away gloominess and bring brightness to his life. Life’s best remembered moments are those that are spent on games and sports in the field. Our nation needs able-bodied and healthy youths to shoulder thousands of duties of bigger, better and brighter tomorrow. Our students of today would make the future India.

Conclusion : To conclude the games and sports are conducive to students’ physical and mental health and teach them the lessons of co-operation, working for others and fellow feeling.

7. GST AND ITS IMPACT ON ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA

Introduction : Amidst economic crisis across the globe, India has posed a beacon of hope with ambitious growth targets supported by some strategic undertakings like the Make in India and Digital India Campaigns’. The Goods and Services Tax (GST) is another such undertaking.

Objective : The objective of GST is to provide the much-needed stimulant for economic growth in India by transforming the existing base of indirect taxation towards the free flow of goods and services. The GST is expected to eliminate the cascading effect of taxes.

Benefits of GST to the Indian Economy

  1. Removal of bndled indirect taxes such as VAT, Service tax, CAD, SAD and excise.
  2. Less tax compliance and a simplified tax policy compared to current tax structure.
  3. Removal of tax on tax.
  4. Reduction of manufacturing, costs due to lower burden of taxes on the manufacturing sector. Hence consumer goods will be likely to come down.
  5. Lower the burden on the common man. In other words, the public will have to spend less money to buy some products that were costly earlier.
  6. Increased demand and consumption of goods.
  7. Increased demand will lead to increase supply. This will, in turn, lead to rise in the production of goods.
  8. Control on black money circulation as the system normally followed by traders and shop keepers will be put to a mandatory check.
  9. Boost to the Indian economy in the long run. The above benefits are possible
    only when the actual benefit of GST is passed on to the final consumer.

The Possible Impact of GST on Economic Development of India

  1. GST will reduce tax burden on producers and foster growth through more production. The GST will provide tax credit to the manufacturers.
  2. Different tax barriers, such as check posts and toll plazas, lead to wastage of unprese tems being transported. Consequently there is higher need of buffer stock and ware houses. A single taxation system will eliminate this road block.
  3. There will be more transparency as the customers will know exactly how much taxes they are being charged and on what basis,
  4. GST will add to the government revenues extending the tax base.
  5. GST will provide credit for the taxes paid by producers in the goods or services chain. This would encourage the producers to buy raw material from different registered dealers. It would bring in more vendors and suppliers under the purview of taxation.
  6. GST will remove the custom duties applicable in exports. The nation’s competitiveness in foreign market will increase on account of lower costs of transaction.

Conclusion : To conclude, the step of levying GST though a bit hard or harsh has far reaching benefits which the nation is reaping.

8. ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

Introduction : Development of environment is the burning issue of the day. It is indispensable not only for the survival of mankind but also for its future protection. Strategy of Sustainable Development of Environment on Different Levels : The strategy of sustainable development of environment on different levels is as under:

1. Technical Level : On technical level, it will take advantage of renewable energies like the sun, wind and biomass, adoption of conservation and recycling practices on a wider scale and the transfer of cleaner and more energy efficient technologies to countries in the developing world.

2. Political and Economic Level : It will involve overhauling of development and trade practices that destroy the environment. It will bring in improvement of indigenous peoples, a fairer distribution of wealth and resources within and between nations.

3. Social Plane : It will involve renewed thrust towards universal primary education and health care, massive afforestation projects, renewed research into and assistance for organic farming practices and biopest control and protection of bio-diversity.

The Measures : India will focus attention on the following measures :

  • Ensure clean and hygienic living and working conditions for the people.
  • Sponsor research on environmental issues pertaining to the region.
  • Ensure safety against known and proven industrial hazards.
  • Find economical methods for salvaging hazardous industrial wastes.
  • Encourage afforestation.
  • Find out substitutes for proven hazardous materials based on local resources and needs.
  • Encourage use of non-conventional sources of energy specially solar energy.
  • Encourage production of environmental friendly products.
  • Popularise use of organic fertilisers and other bio-techniques.
  • Monitor the environmental management.

The Norms of the Development Policy
For conservation of natural resources the development policy would follow the following norms:

  • Make attempts not to impair the natural regeneration capacity of renewable resources.
  • Switch from non-renewable to renewable resource uses.
  • Formulate a phase out policy for the use of non-renewable resources in general.
  • Emphasis on the production of Environment Friendly Products. (EFP)
  • Lay emphasis on the products that are comparatively less harmful or have a more benign effect on the environment right from the stage of manufacture through packaging, distribution, use, disposal and reusability or recycling.

Efforts : Plans are afoot to market EFPS with combined efforts of Bureau of Indian Standards, Ministry of Environment and Forests and Central Pollution Control Board.

Scheme : Since 1990 a scheme of labelling ECOMARK has also been started. In its first phase, the items included in this are soaps, plastics, papers, cosmetics, colours, lubricating oil, pesticides, drugs and various edible items. The objectives of the scheme are :

  • To provide an incentive for manufacturers and to reduce adverse environmental impact of their products.
  • To reward genuine initiatives by companies to reduce adverse environmental impact of their products.
  • To assist consumers to become responsible in their day lives by providing them to take account of environmental factors in their purchase decisions.
  • To encourage citizens to ‘purchase products which have lost harmful environmental impact.
  • To improve the quality of the environment and to encourage the sustainable management of resources.

Conclusion : To conclude, immediate steps for development in environment is indispensable and taking suitable steps is the need of the hour.

9. BIO-FARMING : ITS NECESSITY TODAY

Introduction : In view of the hazardous effects of the farming using artificial fertilizers and pesticides, bio-farming or organic farming is the need of the hour.

Hazardous Effects of Artificial Fertilizers : The hazardous or even life-taking effects of using artificial fertilizers are being unveiled rapidly. The current system of farming using profusely the artificial fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides is not a sustainable one, the least. It is resulting in soil contamination, poisoning of ground water, contaminated food, risk to living beings especially human life and bio-diversity.

Most produce that is available today, is not fully safe to consume as a lot of them have traces of the artificial fertilizers and pesticides that were sprayed on them during their growth. These chemicals have adverse effects on the human body and can cause deadly diseases like cancer.

Organic Bio-farming or Organic-farming : Bio-farming or organic farming prevents the abovesaid hazardous effects by foregoing all these poisonous additives and instead, substituting them with organic manure and more sustainable methods of crop cultivation.

Advantages of Bio-farming or Organic-farming
1. Healthier Soil : A research shows that one tea spoon of soil that has organic compost in it, has as much as 600 million to 1 billion helpful bacteria across 15000 different species compared to the soil that had artificial fertilizers. That had only 100 helpful bacteria in one tea spoon. This makes a strong case as to why bio-farming is needed to conserve our soil.

2. Helps Combat Soil Erosion : Bio-farming not only helps maintain soil quality but also helps combat soil erosion. A study found that organically maintained forms had 8 more inches of top soil compared to farms that had chemically treated crops and soil.

3. Helps Prevent Global Warming: The chemical additives need a ton of fossil fuels to generate the energy that is used to produce them. By cutting down on the usage of such artificial fertilizers and pesticides there has been reduction in the overall impact of global warming.

4. Helps Conserve the Water : Humans are fast running out of fresh water for their day to day use. The current farming methods contaminate water bodies. The rain that falls on soil that have been sprayed with chemicals gets contaminated by pesticides and fertilizers. Organic methods avoid such contamination. Again, they require lesser water. Thus organic farming helps conserve our water bodies as well as reduce the overall amount of water used.

5. Helps Conserve Animal Welfare and Health : Organic farming practices make sure that it is a friendly environment for animals, birds and other forms of life to coexist alongside farms and makes farms a friendly environment for all species to live in.

6. Prevents the Use of GMO’S : Genetically Modified Organisms or GMO’S have great dangers. They discourage crop rotation. Organic farming explicitly avoids the use of these GMO’s. This makes sure that our food is safe.

Conclusion : To conclude, the bio-farming is a constructive, as well as, curative step. It must be encouraged and its use be widened

10. ISRO AND ITS ACHIEVEMENT

Introduction : ISRO, The Indian Space Research Organization was founded in 1969 on the efforts of the then Prime minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Originally, the Space Agency was called INCOSPAR. Shortly afterwards it was superseded by ISRO.

The Significant Role : The Indian space agency has helmed numerous space programs to make the country proud. It has gone on to achieve milestones that set parameters for the rest of the world to follow. At present ISRO is widely considered one of the best space agencies in the globe. It justly claims to be one of the most promising young space programs to watch out for in the coming decades.

Achievements of ISRO : Some of the greatest achievements of the ISRO that made every Indian and humanity in general, proud are as follows :

1. The Mars Orbiter Mission : In 2014 ISRO launched its Mars orbiter Mission (MOM) called the Mangalayan. The purpose of the launch was to collect further information about the red planet. Its importance lies as follows : India became only

the fourth country to successfully reach mars, after the Soviet Union, NASA and European space program. This was also the first mission to successfully reach mars at the very first attempt. Moreover at 450 Crore budget it was the most inexpensive mars mission so far.

2. 104 Satellites at one GO : On February 2017 ISRO launched its Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C37] carrying a staggering 104 satellites to be launched into space. The mission was successful and broke the record set by Russia’s launch of 37 satellites from a single vehicle.

3. The NAVIC : The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite system operational name NAVIC is a work in progress by the ISRO. When it is completed, India will become one of the only 5 countries in the world to have its own navigation system.

4. The Moon Mission : In 2008 India launched its unmanned lunar probe aptly named the Chandrayan. It made India one of the only 8 countries to have successfully sent an orbiter to the moon. The aim was to garner more inform topography and climate of the moon. The Indian flag hoisted on the moon made every Indian heart swell with joy.

5. Small Budget, Big Returns : All the ventures of ISRO from the Mangalayan to the PSLV-C37 were lowest in cost in the world. The Mars Orbiter Mission cost only 450 crore rupees. The PSLV-C37 cost only 15 million dollars whereas NASA’s satellites were sent to space after spending upwards of 100 million dollars.

6. Heaviest Commercial Plans : On July 2015 ISRO launched the heaviest commercial mission so far into space. The mission carried a load of 1440 kg and 5 satellites.

7. Aryabhatta : India’s space missions took flight quite early in 1975 when ISRO built and launched the country’s first satellite, named Aryabhatta. The satellite was built entirely on Indian ground.

8. The Reusable Launch Vehicle : These are very cost effective having cost only 95 crores to build these are meant for multiple uses. ISRO is, at present, working on sending a probe to Venus. It will take off sometime around 2021-22.

Conclusion : To conclude, the space program is ultimately means for the development of the nation and its people. India’s space program was criticised as a luxury. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam replied. It is myopic to look at a space programme as a luxury. In fact, this is an important achievement to be made if a country is to be reckoned with in International circuits.

11. YOUR IDEA OF A HAPPY LIFE

Introduction : Happiness is not an absolute term. Instead, it is a relative term. Everybody, interprets happiness in his own way. Thus, the term “happiness’ is subjective not objective.

Various Interpretations : Different people interpret happiness in their own ways. Some worldly people interpret happy home as the home having money enough to spend lavishly. Some other persons, having a philosophical and spiritualistic attitude towards life, interpret it in a different way. They say that the happiness does not come from outside but from within. In their opinion, a person or a family may be happy if he possesses internal calm and peace. However, there are two extremes. One should find out the middle way between the both examples.

Pre-requisites : In my opinion, the pre-requisites for a happy family are as follows:

1. Material Well Being : None can deny that prosperity is a blessing while poverty is ą.curse. Prosperity means capacity to acquire needed services and goods. However, one should not run after material well being blindly. It should be kept in mind that the worldly goods are only means for getting pleasure not the goal in themselves. The income of the family must be only so much as the family may run smoothly.

2. Health : In case, any member in the family is not healthy or remains sick, true happiness cannot be enjoyed. For example, if the father, the earning member, is sick, the family will face economic hardship. If the mother is sick the household affairs will be disturbed. If any child is sick, other persons will remain worried for his regaining health. The persons who remain sick for long time grow irritable and hence lose temper on petty matters.

3. Mutual Sweet Relations : The members of the family should have sweet or cordial relations with one another. There should be no bitterness, hatred, jealousy and anger.

4. Education : The members of the family should be educated. Education does not mean that each of them should be a graduate or post graduate. In fact, they should be educated enough to distinguish between right and wrong, good and bad, what to accept and what to reject. Education makes the members of the family learn how to behave with each other.

5. Patience and Wisdom : Happiness is not a permanent thing. It is now and then, damaged and lessened by periodical sadness; diseases, deaths and shortage of money. However, it is our duty to see that such things donot infringe our happiness.

6. Positive Thinking : In my opinion, a happy life is the one that is free from cares and worries. This freedom cannot be derived from a lot of money. It can be obtained by habit of mind. Many people worry about petty things. Many of us worry about the imaginary trouble to occur in the future. However, mostly these troubles never come. This is our negative thinking that makes us frightened of bug-bears. We must have positive thinking.

Conclusion : To conclude, in my opinion, there should be money enough for normal expenses. Excessive money does not bring in happiness. Many millionaires spend sleepless nights. A person should be healthy. A healthy body and healthy mind is essential to keep one happy. To be really happy, a man should lead a truthful and honest life. A happy man is one who has enough to eat, who enjoys sound health, is contented with what he possesses and leads a truthful life giving love to others and getting love in return and bearing firm faith in God.

12. AFFORESTATION

Introduction : Afforestation means the efforts to plant trees in the barren lands, the lands where trees had stood earlier but later on felled leaving behind barren land. Its purpose is to create a forest. Afforestation is of vital importance because it helps check the overuse of natural resources, bring reduction in pollution and maintain equilibrium.

Dire Necessity of Afforestation : There is dire necessity to cope with the way in which human beings use natural resources, clear forest lands, fell trees and thus contaminate the air, land and water. Industrial revolution, and consequent industries and factories emitting smoke, population bursts and pollution create permanent damage to the Earth. The result is global warming and climate change. The cutting of the forests is causing ‘The Green House Effect. It is resulting in the heating of the Earth’s surface or global warming. It has serious consequences for life on this planet. As a result, the coming generations are likely to suffer from in curable diseases. Even the existence of human kind might be in danger.

The Earth : In such a situation, something that can help, extend the life of the planet and its living organisms, is the increase of natural resources and decrease of exploitation of these resources. Afforestation is the only measure that can be taken to avoid these disastrous havoc. By planting trees and creating forests, many of the commercial needs of human beings are fulfilled while not destroying what is left on the planet.

Afforestation is thus, a practice that has been propagated by Government and Non-government Agencies with a view to stop over-exploitation of Nature.

Importance of Afforestation : The importance of afforestation is beyond description.

In a natural forest or woodland, the trees are heterogeneous. Due to the sensitivity to over usage and slow growths, these forests cannot be used continuously for commercial purposes like wood products. The process of planting trees in empty lands helps promote the fast propagation of specific types of trees for the wood industry.

With the increasing demand for wood, fuels and building materials, the process of afforestation helps to meet those demand without cutting down the natural forests. Over felling trees is likely to lead to the depletion of trees in water catchments and river side. Afforestation ensures trees and plants that hold the soil in these sensitive areas, remain protected.

Agroforestry : Agroforestry is a practice of planting trees alongwith the agricultural crops in cropfands.
The benefits of this practice are:

  • Providing a supply of timber, fruit and fodder for cattle apart from crop production.
  • Preventing soil erosion.
  • Enabling better retention of water.
  • Shielding crops from excessive wind and sun damage.

Afforestation, the Need of the Hour : In terms of the environmental benefits, planting trees is always beneficial whether it takes place in barren land or is used as a method to regenerate a depleted forest. Trees help check atmospheric carbon dioxide. Large scale afforestation can curb the problems caused due to burning of fossil fuels, industrialization and so forth.

Suggestions :

  1. An all-out effort is needed. We can’t thrust this responsibility only on the government or on the public institutions or on any particular person.
  2. A planned government effort is needed in every state. The government must invest in the afforestation of hilly and desert areas. It must raise green belts in areas which are subject to rapid soil erosion.
  3. Awareness among the common people is greatly needed. Steps must be taken to create massive people’s movement with involvement of women to achieve the objective and minimise pressure on existing forests. Saplings are planted every year. But in absence of proper care they die by the next monsoon. It is the general public whose pious duty is to water and save every plant growing on land in their neighborhood.
  4. Educational institutions should instil in the younger generation the need for planting trees.
  5. The Social Organizations should come forward and promote common people for plantation. These organisations should help the government so that the latter may implement its various programmes on conservation of forests successfully and rapidly.

Conclusion : To conclude, forests are essential for us. We must save trees to save our lives and our existence. Let’s take a pledge to plant trees in more and more numbers and promote others for this noble cause.

13. THE PLEASURES OF WALKING

Introduction : A daily walk is the best of all exercises. Other modes of exercises like hockey, football, cricket, volley-ball or swimming cannot be availed of by everyone. But walking is available to every person, irrespective of his age or sex, being poor or rich.

Where and When to Walk : Walking should always be in the open so that the lungs may get a plentiful supply of a pure and fresh air. A walk outside a town is very refreshing. The best time for a walk is at dawn or with the first rays of the rising sun. At that time, it is soothing calm and quiet. The air is free from dirt and the smoke emitted by the silencers of the passing by vehicles. This is the time when we can listen to the divine music of birds without getting it mixed with the ear-rending noise of the passing-by vehicles.

Advantages of Morning Walk : Main advantages of morning walk are as :
1. The Kind and Merciful God has given us two sturdy feet that we must use to walk. Too much rest is bound to weaken them. It invites all kinds of ailments like arthritis, joint pain or frozen knees. Hence we must not hesitate to make good use of them.

2. A morning walk is very refreshing. It makes us feel active and happy.

3. The morning walk is the only exercise taking which, we may enjoy the company of someone to talk to. In other exercises we have no chance of carrying on a pleasant conversation. We would notice the difference in our health and spirits if we try walking with a companion regularly for some time. Moreover, while walking in the company of a good friend, we may walk for miles together sharing and enjoying the delights of a friendly conversation. However, walking alone is far better than going with a companion.

4. A morning walk provides us with calm and quiet atmosphere, time and mood to thinks. We enjoy the freedom of being our own master. It enables us to indulge in serious thinking or flight of fancy, as we wish. Walking helps us collect and organise
our thoughts. It cools down our temper and soothens our disturbed mind.

5. A walk keeps us mentally and physically fit. It burns our excess calories and gives us relief from acidity or indigestion. It increases our appetite and gives enough exercise to our limbs.

6. Early morning walk supplies us with all the necessary oxygen and regulates our blood circulation. It gives us mental peace and saves us from hypertension which is the main cause of a high BP.

7. Rural dwellers enjoy pleasures of walking in routine everyday. It is for the city people especially those with white collared jobs, that walking is required. Taking morning or evening walks, preferably both, ensures a balance of mental
and physical fitness in life.

Conclusion : To conclude, walking is the best exercise. Unlike other modes of exercises, it costs nothing. The saying is ‘After lunch sleep a while, after supper walk a mile’.

14. SOCIAL MEDIA

Introduction : Social media is a term that is used to describe the interaction between groups or individuals. In this interaction, they produce, share and sometimes, exchange ideas over the internet and in virtual communities.

Present Position : Children are growing up surrounded by mobile devices and interactive social networking sites. Some of the significant sites are Twitter, My space and Facebook. Social network is transforming the manner in which young people interact with their parents, peers and other ones. There are social media sites that have millions of members allowing them to share photos, videos, text messages and more of the like nature. All of these are on a regular basis.

Effects of Social Networking : The researchers are wondering if we are better off without it. If social media has improved or damaged the way people connect with one another. The effects of social networks are two fold:

1. Positive side of the Issue : First, social networking sites can act as invaluable tools for professionals. They achieve this by assisting young professionals to market their skills and seek business opportunities.

Secondly, social networking sites may be used to network professionally.

Third, the people have been able to communicate with people in their local neighborhood and talk to people in other countries at the same time. People have formed online communities that allowed them to get support, education and even promote and sell their products.

Fourth, we can connect with people from other countries and learn about the news that is happening in other parts of the world. If we donot like talking on the phone or lack time to meet in person, we can connect via social media at any time convenient to us. We may also have a list of contacts maintained for us through the social media platform we sees.

2. Negative side of the Issue : The advantages mentioned above have a dark side too that raises ongoing concerns.

First, some people prefer to have face-to-face interaction with friends and the loved ones.

Second, fraud and scams have been on the rise with more people using social media as their main form of communication.

Third, others have wondered what happens to our personal information when we stop using the site or when someone is deceased.

Fourth, there is issue of knowing how much information to share and what to be avoided.

Fifth, viruses tend to spread easier and faster when people are not sure what links to avoid clicking.

Sixth, some people have found themselves in uncomfortable situations. They wish they could undo what they have done. But unfortunately social media can still keep a record of it making it more difficult to leave in the past.

Seventh, social media offers promising features that can make the people think twice about how they utilize this platform. Sometimes they put themselves at risk of ruining a relationship based on what they post and what they may say to someone.

Eighth is cyber bullying, which refers to a type of bullying that is perpretated. Using electronic technology is a fearful matter. Bullies have taken to internet sites such as twitter and face book. There they hide themselves behind the anonymity provided by the internet to carry out their despicable acts. Young people also run the risk of inadvertently disclosing their personal information. The reason is on most occasions, they usually neglect to read carefully websites’ privacy policies. Whenever the young people fail to read the policies and disclaimers, they are exposed to risks of having their personal information disclosed. This is a serious matter in light of the rising cases of cyber crimes such as identity theft.

In the last, it is discovered that social networks have the ability to sway people to spend money by running advertisements on the user’s page. Such forms of rear subliminal advertising can subconsciously cause an individual to buy certain merchandise.

Conclusion : To conclude, ‘Social networks have become part of people’s lives. Many young people are using their table computers and smart phones to check

Tweet’s and Status updates from their friends and family. As technology advances, people are pressured to adopt different life styles. Social networking can assist young people to become more socially capable. Yet it cannot be denied that they may also make them clumsy and incompetent. As such, it is imperative to exercise caution and restraint when dealing with such issues.

15. OUR PRIME MINISTER

Introduction : We have democratic form of government. The PM is the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha and is the head of the Council of Ministers. He is the highest elected representative of the people. The advice of the cabinet to the President is binding. It makes the PM, the defacto head of the state.

Narendra Modi-Birth and Parentage : The name of Narendra Modi, in full, is Narendra Damodardas Modi. He was born on 17 September, 1950 in Vadnagar, Mehsana district, Bombay state, present day Gujarat. His father’s name was Damodardas Mool Chand Modi and mother’s name was Hiraben. He was born in a middle class family. At the age of 13 he was engaged with Jasoda Ben Chaman Lal. When they were married, he was jurst 17 years.

Narendra Modi –In Youth : At the age of eight, Modi discovered the RSS and began attending its local shakhas (training sessions). He made his focus on the social and cultural development organizations : national volunteer organization. He serve flood victims in Gujarat in 1967. He shared several occasions during his work with RSS.

Narendra Modi’s Entrance In Politics : In 1987 Narendra Modi entered into the main political stream by joining the Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP). Within a year he was appointed as General Secretary of the party’s Gujarat unit. In October 2001 he was appointed Chief Minister of Gujarat. In the 2007 elections, the BJP led by Modi once again got a massive majority. In the 2012 elections, the BJP led by Modi once again gained a large majority. Modi sworn in as the fourth consecutive Gujarat Chief Minister.

Modi as PM : Due to his fame and style, Modi was declared as candidate for Prime Minister by Bhartiya Janata Party in 2014 General Elections. After being declared a candidate for PM, he visited the whole India. Under his leadership, the BJP gained phenomenal success in 2014 elections. On 26 May, 2014 Narendra Modi was sworn in as India’s 15th PM.

Image of Modi : Image of Narendra Modi is considered of a stern administrator and protective strict discipline. He has keen interest in science and technology. He is realistic as well as idealistic. He is full of robust optimism. He is best known for rising from humble beginnings to become PM of India. His steps like banning the old currency notes of 500 and 1000 denomination and implementation of GST is a mile stone. Both of the steps paved the way for Indian’s financial development. In international arena he is the towering figure. The USA is successfully pursuaded by him to declare Pakistan a ‘terrorist country’. Today Pakistan is in quarantine.

Conclusion : To conclude, Narendra Modi suffers with no shortcoming or demerit. May he live long!

16. MY FAVOURITE BOOK

Introduction : In the present age, books are indispensable. Dr. Vibasi categorized the books as under :

  • Some books are to be read in haste and thrown.
  • Some books are to be read and digested.
  • Some books are to be read again and again, chewed well and kept in mind.

Ram Charita Manas : To me, the Ram Charita Manas is nearer to the last category of the books. It appeals to the mind, heart and soul of the reader. It has moulded my character, my way of life and given direction to my mind.

Ayodhya Kand : In Ram Charita Manas, it is the Ayodhya Kand that appeals to me the most. The following scenes in this Kand are so heart-touching that they can never be forgotten by me.
1. Bharata’s Return : At the time, King Dasharatha left for heaven, Bharat and Shatrughana were at Kaikeya. They were sent for. When they reached Koshala, Bharata was stunned to see everybody mourning. The city was in darkness as no lamps were lit.

2. Meeting of Bharata and Mothers : In the palace, Bharata met, first with his mother Kaikeyi. He asked her about his father’s well-being. The hard-hearted mother informed Bharata about his father’s death. Hearing about his father’s death Bharata fainted and fell upon the ground. As he grew conscious, he lamented. Then he wished to go to Rama to kiss his lotus feet. At this, Kaikeyi informed him that Ram, Sita and Lakshamana had already gone to the forest. Bharata was stunned to listen it. He asked her about its reasons. Kaikeyi narrated to him about the two boons. Bharata could not bear such mean words of his mother.

Bharata went to Kausalya to get some relief. He fell at her feet and cursed himself. Kausalya felt as if Rama had returned from exile and stood before her. She raised him up and took him into her arms.

3. The Advice : The people of Ayodhya held a general meeting. Sage Vasistha advised Bharat to sit on the throne and rule. But Bharata declared that he would go to the jungle to bring Rama back to Ayodhya. The next day, Bharata, Shatrughana, the mothers, nobles, troops and the people of Ayodhya left for the forest. They reached the Ganga where Guha met them. He led them to Panchvati…

4. The Great Meeting : They reached Panchvati. Bharata prayed Rama to return and become the king of Ayodhya. Rama explained to him the duties of the sons towards their parents. He advised him to rule over Ayodhya as his regent for fourteen years. Bharata had to agree to it with a heavy heart. He put the sandals of Rama upon his head and prostrated at his feet..

5. Return : Now it was the time to return to Ayodhya, Panchvati and the whole of the forest was left calm and quiet again.

Conclusion : Ram Charita Manas teaches us so many lessons of grea presents the true philosophy of life. It tells us how we should live in the world, conforming with the noble ideas of life. Every character teaches us some great lesson or the other. The character of King Dasharatha teaches us to keep our word as he did at the cost of his life. The character of Rama teaches us to be noble, virtuous and true to our word. The character of Sita teachers us the lesson of chastity. The characters of Bharata, Lakshamana and Hanumana teach us the lessons of loyalty, self-sacrifice and service of humanity. The character of Ravana warns us against being arrogant.

17. INDIA IN 2050

Introduction : It is too difficult to present the vision 2050 for India. Changes occur sometimes gradually, but some other times revolutionary, radically and suddenly. However, on the basis of the changes undergoing at present speculations may be made to certain extent.

Position in International Arena : India will be one of the super powers. At present, we are forcing China to beat a retreat from disputed area. We have achieved success in getting Pakistan declared as a terrorist country. By 2050 India will be at the apex.

Friendly on Equal Footing : India will be having friendly relations with other countries on equal footing..

Relations with Neighbouring Countries : She will have good relations with the neighbouring countries like Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Bangladesh. There will be free trade and communication between her and the neighbouring countries.

Settling of Border Disputes : India and China will get success in settling border disputes. China will, in view of India’s rising power and influence, give up the policy of making any encroachment. Likewise, Pakistan will dare not shelling in the POK as well as our borders. Economic Progress : In the economic field, the country will have made remarkable progress. Standard of living of our countrymen would have risen much. India would become a great exporting country. There would be a great progress in the field of industry and agriculture

No Place for Narrow Communal Feelings : There will be no narrow caste and communal feelings. People will feel that God is one, He is Omnipresent, Omniscient and Omnipotent. No sin will be committed in the name of religion.

Free from Clutches of Corruption : There will be no corruption anywhere. The higher officials will weed out the corrupt staff. Judiciary will take cognizance if cases of corrupt practices are brought to her notice.

Progress in the field of Education : India will make remarkable achievements in the field of education. The present theoretical education will be replaced by technical and vocational education. The country will be free from illiteracy.

Position in Space : Indian Space Research Organisation will have wondering achievements. At present ISRO has Mars Orbiter Mission (2014), Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C37) (2017), Moon Mission (2008), Heaviest Commercial Mission (2015). The Reusable Launch Vehicle at her credit. The project NAVIC will be completed and India will become one of the five countries that have their own navigation. ISRO’s work on sending a probe to Venus will be complete.

Medical Science : The medical science has its credit : Insulin pen, Laproscopic surgery, Laser treatment, Endoscopic capsule, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit tremendously decreasing mortality in newborns, Radio surgery for tumour, YOU WECAN cancer screening Initiative.

Telemedicine will prove to be a cost efficient and effective use of medical and technological cosmos. It will be used for education or training for isolated or rural health practitioners, which will reduce patients’ displacement for quality treatment. The patients’ inaccessible areas will be beneficiary. Telemedicine will allow patients to seek medical care, share their medical reports, videos or radiology images in case of an emergency or otherwise.

Conclusion : To conclude, the image of India of 2050 is quite radiant. She will be at the apex of the world.

18. WONDERS IN MEDICAL SCIENCE

Introduction : Modern Age is the Age of Science. Medical Science has enabled man to fight against and get cured even the hitherto fatal diseases like cancer and heart attacks. Open heart surgery and transplantation of limbs like kidneys, lungs and the like have lessned the death toll.

Health Cleanliness Programme, Health Awareness Drive : It is concealed to none that besides curing diseases, it is essential to prevent reoccurrence of diseases. It needs Health Awareness. Hence a Drive for the same is organised. The first step in this direction was taken in the Bhat village in Gujarat.

Awareness for Heart Health : It is discovered that coronary artery disease (stroke) is the third leading cause of death with nearly 1,57,000 people dying annually. No doubt, sometimes, heart disease is out patients control. Yet quite often it can be prevented. With this purpose ‘Dil Ka Dard’a mini marathon was organised by Indraprastha Appollo hospitals, New Delhi. Its objective was to aware the people about the importance of healthy heart and motivate them to adopt a healthy life style.

It can prevent many diseases itself. The hospital has a low cost screening programme for stroke, Aneursym and vascular diseases. It is first comprehensive vascular screening programme in our country.

Cancer Awareness : APPOLLO YOUWECAN cancer screening Initiative is one of the most effective initiatives. It launched its first Mobile cancer screening Unit in Kolkata. It will undertake screening programs at various locations in West Bengal

Telemedicine : It can prove to be a cost effective use of medical and technological cosmos. It allows patients to seek medical care, share their medical reports-videos or radiology images in case of an emergency or other wise. Appollo is Promoting wellnes in Rural India.

Appollo Reach Hospitals : It is the first of its kind effort to make advanced technology and experienced medical professionals accessible to the people living in rural and semi-urban areas in the country.

Radio Surgery for Tumor : In a case, after work up by ophthalmologist including a C.T. Scan of the orbits revealed a 1.6 cm homogeneous area of enhancement in the region of the cribriform plate. If the patient had undergone surgical removal of her oilfactory groove meningcoma, she might have sustained permanent loss of her sense of smelt. Radio surgery cured her. It look just 15 to 20 minutes.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit : It is the advent of newer Therapeutic modalities, artificial life support techniques
rt techniques and infection control mechanism. It has tremendously decreases mortality in newborns.

Insulin Pen : It is a portable, discreet and convenient for injecting insulin for the treatment of diabetes while away from home.

Laproscopic Surgery : Optical fibres have paved the way for a whole new field of surgery called laproscopic surgery. It is used for operations in the stomach area such as appendectomies or spinal stenosis.

Endoscopic Capsule : It is believed that the capsule which is designed to be swallowed like a pill, can be equipped with a camera.

Conclusion : To conclude, the wonders in medical science are striding towards enabling man to live longer and enjoy better health.

19. IMMINENT DANGERS TO THE WORLD PEACE

Introduction : It goes without saying that today the world is sitting on the pile of gunpowder. Only a spark is sufficient to ignite the pile resulting in explosion and eventually heaps of ashes and burning cinders. The Second World War was far more fierce than the First World War. With the revolutionary development in armaments, invention of more and more fatal means of annihilation and the arrogant aggressive uncompromising attitude of the rulers the world is being pushed towards its disaster

Terrorism : The terrorists, generally, utilise machineguns and bombs, strike in exposed areas like airplane stations, concert halls, big gathering. Of late, an attack is carried out (2018) in the capital of Belgium, Brussels, killing a great number of civilians. The attacks were issued in a train station and in an airplane station. The havoc was horrible.

Racial Armed Violence : In Srilanka blood is being shed in the armed attacks by the native Buddhists and Rohingyas at each other. The same has been in Myanmar. The Nobel Peace Laureate State Counsellor of Myanmar and the country’s defact

leader Aung San Suir Kyi refers to the bloodshed as counterterrorism. Buddhist nationalists call it self-defense against a people (Rohingyas). Contrary to it, the opposite party calls it genocide. However, the International Community remains hesitant to say anything.

There is a precedent for this lack of moral clarity. In Syria; the Assad regime and its allies in Russia and Iran successfully branded the conflict a counter-terrorism matter or at worst a fight between several sides of equal culpability. The western readers of the press viewed the death and destruction in Syria as part of the fight against Daesh. Few remember that the Assad regime bore sole culpability for launching a systematic campaign to wipe out a large Swaths of the country. Assad regime dropped barrel bombs. Thermobaric weapons and missiles on towns, villages and hospitals. This precedent enabled the Myanmar Government to use helicopters and mass torchings of Rohingya villages.

Threatening : The rulers like Kim Jong of North Korea is giving threatening to the USA and indirectly to the world. A nuclear button is always on my desk ready for use if North Korea is threatened. He offers South Korea an olive branch saying, ‘He is open to dialogue with Seoul.’

Dreadful Tests : North Korea’s testing inter-continental ballistic missiles and conducting its sixth and most powerful nuclear test in defiance of international warnings and sanctions, besides other horrible and aggressive steps, raise fears of a new conflict on the Korean Peninsula. Kim declares his nuclear force complete after testing its most powerful inter continental Ballistic Missile. It is claimed that it is capable of delivering a warhead to anywhere in the continental United States. He adds that North Korea would focus on ‘mass producing nuclear war heads and ballistic missiles for operational deployment in the coming year. Kim declares in plain words that the above step has made it impossible for the United States to start a war against North Korea.

Dreadful Alignments : North Korea and China are coming closer and closer. Pakistan and Russia are too close to them.

Diplomats Expulsion : US expels Russian (39) diplomats. In retaliation Russia expels 60 diplomats of US and 23 countries. Paskistan withdraws his diplomat from India. All of these steps are threatening world peace.

Bombardment on UN Aid Convoy : UN’s lorries carrying surgical and medical supplies are being bombarded as in Syria.

Conclusion : Thus, the cold war between US group and Russian group is enlivened. The world is on the verge of destruction.

20. CHALLENGES BEFORE INDIAN DEMOCRACY

Introduction : Democracy is an ideal form of government. India is the biggest democratic nation. Here the democratic form of government was set up on 26th Jan, 1950. At present, every citizen of 18 years, without any discrimination on the bases of colour, caste, creed, religion property or sex, has a right to vote.

Challenges : However, challenges from various corners are being faced by our Democracy. Some of these are as under :
1. Vicious Practices : Some vicious practices are : lure of money in elections, consideration of caste, creed and language, lack of self-imposed discipline, violence, bunds, gheraos, strikes and misuse of privileges, foul ways adopted by power hungry people, struggle of political parties to grab power and provincialism etc. Karnataka, the Lingayat sect has claimed the states of separate religious status as well as that of minority. Andhra is claiming for special status. The parties that lose in elections question EVM itself.

2. Divisive Forces : Divisive forces are growing stronger everyday. People belonging to different castes are trying to introduce caste factor in politics. It is but natural that there will be a reaction to these types of tendencies from the people belonging to other castes. As a result the society is bound to be divided into water-tight compartments of different castes. Leaders of groups belonging to castes are claiming more autonomy for their own groups. Language, regional languages and the sub-cultures or such other factors are dividing the nation into smaller groups. Internally divided nation will breed a large number of the political parties.

3. Suppression of Free Press : Free press has a vital role in keeping the Democracy intact. As such, it is entrusted the task of highlighting the wrong done by the government. But today press in being strangled. News of reporters’ being killed are coming to notice.

4. Integrity Questioned : Independent Judiciary is the third column of Democracy. However, its integrity is being questioned.

5. Oppositions’ Role : The role of opposition is to point out the shortcomings and wrongs of the government. But now it has adopted to oppose every step whether good or bad and make such a noise that Parliament’s functioning is paralysed.

6. Political Parties : The political parties are the life and soul of Democracy. They contest elections. They bring to the notice of the public their manifestos. The leading party forms the government. They are to keep the whole of the Nation in their view. But, with the exception of one or two, the political parties get their sustenance from the different regional problems. It is but natural, that these parties cannot have national appeal. Rather, they try to give preference to the regional problems and create confusion in the politics of the country. They are unable to organise public opinion in proper manner.

7. Political Leaders : The political leaders are guided more by their own petty and vested interests. The result is defections. Every leader tries to form his own political party so that he may be able to retain the position of eminence.

8. Illiteracy : The number of the illiterate is great. The children, th try, are not sent to schools because they are needed to work in fields and factories. It is estimated that at present not more than 40 percent population is educated. The number of the people who have studied in colleges, is far less.

9. Slums : The problem of slums is given birth by big cities. Nearly all the big industrial cities are surrounded by slums. There are 140 slums in Mumbai, 311 in Chennai and 902 in Delhi. These are the centres of all the kinds of vices and corruption.

10. Terrorism : Terrorism is prevalent in Kashmir. POK has become the breeding centre of terrorists. Blood of innocent civilians is being shed.

Conclusion : To conclude, Indian Democracy is facing challenges from many corners. Suitable, prompt and effective steps are to be taken to ameliorate the position and strengthen Democracy. .

21. NEWSPAPER VS NEWS CHANNEL

Introduction : The term “newspaper’ is composed of two words ‘News’ and ‘Paper’. In the word ‘News’ there are four letters ‘NEWS’ that stand for four directions viz North, East, West, South. Thus the reports from four directions are given the name
‘NEWS’. The paper on which reports are printed is called ‘newspaper’.
Likewise, ‘News Channel is composed of two words ‘News’ and ‘Channel’, ‘News’ has been explained above. ‘Channel’ means ‘The way or route’. Thus ‘News Channel means the ‘way or route through which news is sent.

Today, newspapers have become an indispensable part of our life. The morning tea is not relished without a newspaper in hand. With the spread and widening of education the importance of the newspaper has increased. Here ‘news channel surpasses newspaper, as all the persons literate or illiterate, too young children, youngsters and old ones enjoy it.

Importance :
1. Current Affairs : Newspaper lets us know about what is going on in the national and international sphere. The front page of all the leading newspapers reads the important news reported by PTI, Infa and Reuter etc. Here newschannels prove their worth as they provide us with the current information. We come to see what has happened a minute before. Sometime, we even witness what is going on. The ‘live’ show presents it before us.

2. Indispensable for Democracy : In a democratic state, as is ours, newspaper plays pivot role. Leaders send their message to the public through newspapers. The people come to know about the policy of the Governmen opposition as well. ‘News channels’ also do the same.

3. Pulse of the Nation : Newspapers enable the government to feel the pulse of the public opinion. The government avoids those steps which are opposed by the people at large. The same is done by the news channels.

4. Advertisements : In the Newspaper, advertisements of various products given by business concerns appear. There are advertisements of patent medicines. The persons suffering with the concerned diseases may buy those medicines. In this respect, news channels’ scope is limited.

5. Employment : Nearly in all newspapers, Wants/Vacancies/Situations Vacant are given on the second page. The unemployed ones may apply for the posts suitable to them and are likely to get employment. Such facility is little in news channels.

6. Matrimonial : On Sundays so many pages of the newspaper abound with it. Here news channel is silent.

7. Children Corner : Children corner provides educative, useful and interesting stories, jokes and mental food for children. Here news channels surpass Newspaper. Cartoon serials provide children with far greater enjoyment than that is given by newspapers.

It goes without saying that newschannels have brought in a revolution. Starnews (1998) earned a name by its untiring and exhaustive coverage of the Kargil War between India and Pakistan. The news programme ‘Aaj Tak’a twenty four hour Hindi newschannel covers India with insight, valour and caters to the regional and local viewers. The 24-hour newschannel—ND TV, 24 x 7 targets the Indian Diaspora across the world. Sahara Samay is the first ever city-centric satellite news channel covering 31 cities in India with their own city news bulletins. A great number of national newschannels are : CNN-IBN, Headlines Today, NDTV Profit, CNBC, TV 18 Times of India etc.

Conclusion : To conclude both newspapers and news channels have their lead in their respective spheres.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *