Chapter 2 A Fellow Traveller

LESSON at a Glance

A.G. Gardiner is one of the best essayists the world has ever had. He had the genius of describing ordinary things in an exceptionally interesting manner. The present story is an example of it.

Gardiner was travelling in a passenger train from London to a Midland Town. The passengers got down in ones and twos at the wayside stations, and in the end, he was left alone in the compartment.

The sense of being alone in the compartment opened up a basketful of good things for Gardiner. Instead of feeling loneliness, he thought he could do anything he liked, he. could stand upwards on his head and nobody would see him. He could sing, dance, open or shut the windows but nobody would object it. But alas! a mosquito was disturbing him.

The mosquito fluttered, took a round in the compartment and sat on the nose of the writer. He flicked it off but it again sat on his nose after taking another round of the compartment. Then, it sat on the back of his hand and then on the newspaper he was reading. He warned the mosquito twice but in vain. Now, Gardiner decided to kill it. He adopted many tactics to get hold and kill the mosquito, but every time it escaped. At last Gardiner began to enter into the spirit of a fellow mosquito. It was no more a mere insect for him. He realised that he and the mosquito were fellow mortals in this world. But by chance they had become fellow-travellers that night.

Gardiner concludes that we take birth but we do not know from where we have come. This remains a mystery. Our life in this world is very short yet it is full of wonders. We have to struggle hard to live for this short period. Then, we go away from this world our own way.

हिन्दी अनुवाद

(1) I do not …………. even D.O.R.A.
मैं नहीं जानता कि हममें से कौन डिब्बे में पहले सवार हुआ। वास्तव में, मैं यह भी नहीं जानता था कि वह कुछ समय के लिए डिब्बे में था। यह लन्दन से मिडलैण्ड टाउन को जाने वाली अन्तिम गाड़ी थी, एक अत्यन्त धीमी गति से चलने वाली गाड़ी और ऐसा लगता था कि सम्भवत: यात्रा कभी समाप्त ही नहीं होगी। जब वह चली थी तब इसमें बहुत अधिक भीड़ न थी किन्तु ज्यों ही यह उपनगरीय स्टेशनों पर रुकती थी तब एक-एक या दो-दो यात्री नीचे उतर जाते थे, किन्तु जैसे ही हम लन्दन के बाहरी क्षेत्र से आगे बढ़े, तब डिब्बे में मैं अकेला ही था।

रात्रि के समय जो डिब्बा शोर करता हुआ झटके ले रहा हो उसमें अकेले यात्रा करना स्वतन्त्रता का आनन्द देता है। वहाँ बहुत प्रकार से स्वतन्त्रता का सुखद आभास होता है। आप अपनी पसन्द का कोई भी कार्य कर सकते हैं। आप स्वयं से जितनी जोर से चाहें बातें कर सकते हैं और कोई भी व्यक्ति आपको सुनेगा नहीं। आप जॉन (अपने काल्पनिक शत्रु) से सफलतापूर्वक लड़ सकते हैं और बिना किसी जवाबी हमले के भय के आप उसे मिट्टी में लुढ़का सकते हैं। आप अपने सिर के बल खड़े हो सकते हैं। दो कदम नाच सकते हैं। गोल्फ का अभ्यास कर सकते हैं या बिना किसी रोक-टोक के फर्श पर कंचे खेल सकते हैं या उसे बन्द कर

सकते हैं। आप दोनों खिड़की खोल सकते हैं या दोनों बन्द कर सकते हैं। आप कोई भी कोना चुन सकते हैं। और बारी-बारी से सारे कार्य कर सकते हैं। आप गद्दों पर लम्बे-लम्बे लेट सकते हैं और सारे नियमों को तोड़ सकते हैं। सम्भवतः अंग्रेजों के सुरक्षा कानूनों को भी।

(2) On this …………. humiliated me.
इस रात मैंने कोई कार्य नहीं किया। वे बातें मेरे मन में भी नहीं आई। जो कुछ मैंने किया वह बहुत साधारण बात थी। जब मेरा अन्तिम साथी यात्री भी चला गया तब मैंने अपना अखबार रख दिया। अपने हाथ और पैर फैलाए, खड़ा हो गया और शान्त गर्मियों की रात्रि को खिड़की के बाहर झाँककर देखा जिसमें मैं यात्रा कर रहा था और दिन की धुंधली रोशनी को देखा जो अब भी आकाश में उत्तर की ओर थी। मैं डिब्बे के इस पार से उस पार तक गया और दूसरी खिड़की में से बाहर देखा, एक सिगरेट जलाई, बैठ गया और फिर पढ़ने लगा। उस समय मैं अपने साथी यात्री से सावधान हो गया। वह आया और मेरी नाक पर बैठ गया। वह उन कीड़े-मकोड़ों में से एक था जिन्हें हम यों ही मच्छर कह देते हैं। वह पंख वाला, तेज डंक वाला तथा निर्भीक था। मैंने उसे अपनी नाक पर से हटा दिया। उसने डिब्बे का दौरा किया। उसकी लम्बाई, चौड़ाई तथा ऊँचाई का निरीक्षण किया। प्रत्येक खिड़की को देखा। रोशनी के चारों ओर पंख फड़फड़ाए, उसने निश्चय कर लिया कि कोने में बैठे हुए मुझ जैसे बड़े प्राणी से अधिक मनोरंजक वस्तु उसके लिए और नहीं है, वह आया और उसने मेरी गर्दन पर निगाह डाली।

मैंने उसे फिर झटके से हटा दिया। वह उड़ गया, पूरे डिब्बे का दूसरा दौरा किया, वापस लौटा और धृष्टता से मेरे हाथ के पीछे बैठ गया। मैंने कहा, “यह काफी है। उदारता की भी सीमा होती है। तुम्हें दो बार चेतावनी दी गई है कि मैं एक विशेष व्यक्ति हूँ, मुझे पसन्द नहीं है कि कोई अपरिचित व्यक्ति मेरे शरीर पर गुदगुदाए। मैं अब स्वयं को एक जज मानता हूँ जो किसी कैदी को मौत का दण्ड सुनाता है। मैं तुम्हें मृत्यु दण्ड देता हूँ। यही न्याय की माँग है और अदालत का यह आदेश है। तुम्हारे विरुद्ध बहुत-से आरोप हैं। तुम आवारा हो, तुम लोक कंटक हो, तुम बिना टिकट के यात्रा कर रहे हो, तुम्हारे पास मीट कूपन भी नहीं है अर्थात् तुम्हें किसी को खून चूसने का अधिकार नहीं है। इन सभी और अनेक अन्य जुर्मों के कारण तुम अब मरने वाले हो।” मैंने अपने सीधे हाथ से बहुत तेज घातक घूसा मारा। वह बड़ी चालाकी से मेरे मुक्के से बचकर भाग गया और मैंने स्वयं को बड़ा अपमानित अनुभव किया।

(3) My personal …………. I s it.
मेरा व्यक्तिगत अभिमान जाग्रत हो गया। मैं अपना पैंसा तानकर तथा अखबार लेकर आगे बढ़ा। मैं अपनी सीट पर कूदा और लैम्प के चारों ओर उसका पीछा किया। मैंने बिल्ली जैसी चतुराई की चालें अपनाईं, जब तक वह नीचे उतरा मैंने उसकी प्रतीक्षा की एवं चुपचाप आगे बढ़ा और अचानक तेजी से एवं भयंकर ढंग से उस पर वार किया।

यह भी व्यर्थ रहा। वह मेरे साथ इस प्रकार खेला जैसे कोई साँड से कुश्ती लड़ने वाला व्यक्ति क्रोधित साँड के चारों ओर चतुराई से घूमता है तथा उससे निबटता है। यह स्पष्ट हो गया था कि यह अपना मनोरंजन कर रहा था और इसी कारण उसने मेरी शान्ति को भंग किया था। वह थोड़ा खेलना चाहता था और ऐसा खेल कि इतने बड़े और भारी प्राणी के चारों ओर घूम-फिरकर जो इतना अच्छा लगता है और इतना निःसहाय और मूर्ख दिखाई देता था। मैंने अब समझने की कोशिश आरम्भ कर दी। वह अब केवल एक कीड़ा-मकोड़ा ही नहीं था। वह ऐसा बुद्धिमान व्यक्ति होता जा रहा था जो मेरी बराबरी के आधार पर ही उस डिब्बे पर अपना अधिकार रखता था। मैंने उसकी ओर स्नेह का अनुभव किया और मेरी महानता की भावना गायब होने लगी। मैं अपने आपको उस प्राणी से महान् कैसे मान सकता था जो स्पष्ट रूप से उस प्रतियोगिता में मेरा स्वामी था जिसमें हम इतनी देर से लगे थे। फिर क्यों न मैं विशाल हृदय वाला बनूं। विशाल हृदय तथा दया मनुष्य के दो सबसे अच्छे लक्षण हैं। इन्हीं दोनों गुणों के अभ्यास से मैं अपने सम्मान को पुनः प्राप्त कर सकता हूँ। इस समय मैं एक हँसी-मजाक की वस्तु था, दयावान होकर मैं मनुष्य के नैतिक सम्मान को पुन: प्राप्त कर सकता हूँ और सम्मान के साथ अपने कोने में जा सकता हूँ। अपनी सीट पर वापस आकर मैंने कहा कि मैं मृत्यु-दण्ड वापस लेता हूँ। मैं तुम्हें नहीं मार सकता, किन्तु मैं तुम्हारे मृत्यु-दण्ड को क्षमा कर सकता हूँ। मैं ऐसा कर रहा हूँ।

(4) I took up my …………. round the lamp.
मैंने अखबार उठाया और वह आकर इस पर बैठ गया। मैंने कहा, ऐ मूर्ख साथी, तुमने स्वयं को मेरे हवाले कर दिया है। मैं इस सम्मानित साप्ताहिक-पत्र के दोनों पन्नों को यदि जोर से बन्द करू जैसे चाँटे की आवाज होती है तब तुम दो लेखों के बीच कुचले जाओगे और मर जाओगे, एक लेख ‘Peace Traps’ और दूसरा “The Modesty of Mr Hughes. किन्तु मैं ऐसा नहीं करूंगा। मैंने तुम्हें मृत्यु-दण्ड से क्षमा किया है और मैं तुम्हें इस बात से सन्तुष्ट कर दूंगा कि मैं जो कहता हूँ वही करता हूँ। इसके अतिरिक्त मैं तुम्हें मारना भी नहीं चाहता। तुम्हें भली प्रकार जान-पहचानकर, मैं तुमसे स्नेह करने लगा हूँ। मैं कल्पना करता हूँ कि सैंट फ्रांसिस भी तुम्हें छोटा भाई ही मानता है। मैं इतनी उदारता तथा विनम्रता नहीं दिखा सकता, किन्तु मैं तो इससे भी दूर का रिश्ता पहचानता हूँ। संयोग से हम इस गर्मियों की रात्रि में साथी यात्री बन गये हैं। मैंने तुम्हारा मनोरंजन किया और तुमने मेरा। हमारे अहसान पारस्परिक हैं और इस सत्य पर आधारित हैं कि हम दोनों ही नश्वर प्राणी हैं। हमारे जीवन का आश्चर्य और रहस्य समान है। मैं मानता हूँ कि तुम अपनी यात्रा के विषय में कुछ नहीं जानते। मुझे यह भी निश्चय नहीं है कि अपनी यात्रा के बारे में मैं अधिक जानता हूँ। वास्तव में, जब तुम यह सोचोगे तो पाओगे कि हम दोनों एक-दूसरे के ही समान हैं-केवल भूत, जो हैं और नहीं भी हैं जो रात्रि में इस प्रकार प्रकाशमान डिब्बे में आ गए हैं, थोड़ी देर तक चिराग पर फड़फड़ा रहे हैं और पुनः अँधेरे में चले जाएँगे। शायद ………

खिड़की पर से एक आवाज आई ‘Going on tonight; Sir यह एक जाने-पहचाने कुली की आवाज थी, जिसने मुझे इशारा दिया कि यही स्टेशन है, जहाँ मुझे उतरना है। मैंने उसे धन्यवाद दिया और कहा कि मैं ऊँघ रहा था। अपना टोप और छड़ी लेकर मैं गर्मियों की ठण्डी रात में बाहर आ गया। जब मैंने डिब्बे का दरवाजा बन्द किया तब मैंने अपने साथी यात्री को लैम्प के चारों ओर पंख फड़फड़ाते हुए देखा।

Understanding the Text

Explanations
Explain one of the following passages with reference to the context :
(1) I do not know ………….. I was alone.
Or
I do not know ………….. eternity. [2015]
Reference: These lines have been taken from the lesson ‘A Fellow-traveller’ written by a famous English essayist A.G. Gardiner. [ N.B.: The above reference will be used for all explanations of this lesson.)

Context: This delightful essay is about an encounter between a mosquito and the author who were travelling in the same compartment of a train.

Explanation: The writer was travelling by a passenger train and was left alone in the carriage as all other passengers had alighted from it on the way side stations. It was the last suburban train from London to a Midland town. When the train left the outer ring of London behind, the writer was the only passenger in the compartment and only then he realized that he was alone.

(2) There is a pleasant ………….. anything you like. [2011, 18]
Context : The writer was travelling by a train and was left alone in the carriage as all other passengers had alighted from it.

Explanation : The writer says that travelling in a carriage, all alone, which is moving along jerkily at night making much noise is a unique experience. It gives you pleasure of personal liberty. This liberty is altogether unchecked and is in fact very pleasing. You are free to do whatever you like.

(3) I flicked him off my nose …………. took at my neck. [2009]
Or
He was one of ………….. at my neck. [2015]
Context : The writer was travelling in a train. When the last of his fellow passengers had gone, he lit a cigarette, sat down and began to read again. It was then that a mosquito joined him in the compartment and sat on his nose.

Explanation : The writer says that he struck the mosquito off his nose with a sharp light blow. The mosquito flew away and examined the entire compartment, went to see each window and then moved restlessly round the light. The author further says that the mosquito came to the conclusion that he (the author) was the most advantageous creature for him in the compartment, sitting in a corner. It came near the author and had a glance at his neck.

(4) I flicked him off ………….. has its limits. [2013]
Context : The writer was travelling in a train. When all the passengers had gone, a mosquito began to disturb the writer again and again. He began to move in the whole compartment and thought the writer to be most interesting from him to play with.

Explanation : In this passage the writer describes the imprudence of the mosquito. After taking the round of the whole compartment, the mosquito came and sat upon the neck of the writer. The writer struck him with a light sharp blow. But the mosquito again flew away, took a round of the compartment and seated himself rudely on the back of the writer’s hand. But the writer could not bear it anymore and told the mosquito that generosity has its limit and reminded him that he had already warned him twice.

(5) It is enough ………….. court awards it.
Context : The writer was travelling in a passenger train from London. When the train had left the outer ring of London, only the writer was left there. He was tired of a mosquito who troubled him again and again. Now, the mosquito sat on the back of his hand.

Explanation : The writer could not tolerate this bold mischief of the mosquito. He could not be generous any more. He had already warned it twice. The writer thought about himself that he was not an ordinary man. He must be regarded. But the little mosquito was disturbing him and tickling his body again and again. It was a stranger. So, he decided to punish it. He thought himself to be a judge and decided to condemn it to death as there were many charges against it.

(6) I assume the ………….. humiliated me. [2009, 17, 18]
Context : The writer was travelling in a train. His fellow-traveller was a mosquito who disturbed him very much. First, author explained him in every way but he did not obey and accept his suggestions. Then, the author was ready to kill him.

Explanation : In these lines the writer says that seeing the dangerous activities of mosquito he warned him for punishment. He told him that he was authorised to condemn him to death. He charged his fellow-traveller that he has no ticket of railway, no license of meat. He was a vagabond and a public nuisance. For these and many other misdemeanours he should be sentenced to death. The writer further says that he struck the mosquito off his nose with a sharp light blow with his right hand. But he flew away to save himself and the writer felt himself ashamed very much.

(7) My personal vanity ………….. terrible swiftness. [2011]
Context : A great battle was going on between the writer and the mosquito. The mosquito constantly disturbed the writer. Becoming a judge, the writer sentenced the mosquito to death. He charged the mosquito in many ways.

Explanation : The writer thought that his decision was quite right. He wanted to kill it. He struck a fatal blow with his right hand and with his paper he jumped on the seat and followed him. He used all tactics but the mosquito dodged every attack. But every time he failed.

(8) He played with me ………….. spirit of the fellow. [2013]
Context : The writer was travelling in a train. When all the passengers had gone, a mosquito began to disturb him again and again. The writer tried his best to stop him but he did not obey him and continued disturbing him. He warned him to kill him and framed many serious charges against him but all in vain.

Explanation : In this passage the writer accepts his defeat. He wanted to kill him but his all efforts failed and the mosquito went on enjoying this fight. He played with the writer openly and courageously. It was a show of a fight between a matador and an angry bull. In this fight the writer himself behaved like an angry bull and the mosquito like a skilful matador. It was clear to the writer that the mosquito was enjoying himself by moving round the man who seemed to him so helpless and stupid. Now the writer changed his feelings against the mosquito and began to enter into his spirit.

(9) It was obvious ………….. and so stupid. [2012]
Context : A great battle was going on between the writer and the mosquito. The writer used all tactics to kill the mosquito but the mosquito dodged every attack. Thus the writer failed every time.

Explanation : Now the writer had come to know the reality of the sport between him and mosquito. According to the writer the mosquito was busy in his own entertainment. Therefore he had disturbed him. He wanted to play a game fluttering round the man who seemed to him so big and so stupid. The writer also realized that the mosquito had the equal right on the compartment. Thus the writer accepted his defeat and changed his views.

(10) I began to enter ………….. my prestige. [2014]
Context : During his journey the writer was troubled very much by a mosquito. He warned it twice but useless. Third time he decided to kill it. But by its clever trick the mosquito saved itself from all cunning tactics of the writer. So, the writer was perplexed.

Explanation : The writer accepted his defeat. He began to understand him and love him. He accepted that the mosquito also was not only an ordinary insect but it also had a personality of its own. It proved that it had the equal right like the writer to stay in the compartment. Now, the writer did not think himself superior to the mosquito because it had defeated him in the competition. Now the writer decided to be magnanimous. He remembered that magnanimity and mercy are the two noble qualities of man. Thus by developing these two qualities, he would be able to get back his lost prestige.

(11) Magnanimity and mercy ………….. I do it. [2012, 18]
Or
At present ………….. I do it. [2018]
Context : The writer could not kill the mosquito. Now, he started having kindly feelings for the mosquito. His sense of superiority began to disappear gradually. He felt that the mosquito had equal rights to be in the compartment. It had equal rights to live and enjoy. So the writer now decided to be generous and kind to the mosquito.

Explanation : Now, it dawned on the writer that generosity and mercy were the greatest qualities of man. He felt that by being generous and merciful he could get back his honour lost in his fight with the mosquito. Thus, he could save his face. He felt how foolish and helpless, he was at that moment. He was an object of mockery. But by showing mercy and forgiveness, he could thus recover his lost honour. He came back to his seat. He would not punish the mosquito with death. He would not kill it. He had suspended his death sentence.

(12) But I shall not do it. ………….. distant relationship. [2013]
Context : The writer accepted his defeat in the encounter with the mosquito and developed an affection for him. He decided to withdraw the death sentence to maintain his moral dignity and honour.

Explanation : In these lines the writer tells the mosquito his decision of not killing him because he has pardoned him. But he wants to make him aware that he does what he says. But now he has come to know him well and has developed an affection for him. St. Francis would have called him ‘Little Brother’. He can’t show such Christian civility but he had a distant relationship with him, i.e. both of them are fellow-travellers. Both have interested each other in the dark of night.

(13) The obligation is mutual ………….. about mine. [2009, 17]
Context : The writer accepted his defeat in the encounter with the mosquito. Now he decided to pardon the mosquito and withdraw the death sentence. That was the only way to maintain his moral dignity and honour.

Explanation : Now the writer has changed his attitude for the mosquito. He treats it on equal terms. He thinks that both are obliged to each other because both have entertained each other. Moreover, both of them are mortals. So he compares their life to a journey. None knows when and where this journey will end. Both have taken birth in this world, enjoy their life, wander hither and thither and ultimately die and this world becomes dark to them. This is the philosophic attitude of the writer about life.

(14) The miracle of life ………….. night again. [2009, 17, 18]
Context : In the end the mosquito sat on the newspaper and it was in the hands of the writer. But he did not kill it because he had reprieved it. He thought that by chance they became the fellow-travellers. Both entertained each other. They were now friends because they were fellow mortals.

Explanation : In these lines the writer says that life is the greatest miracle of nature. Nobody knows exactly about his life. The beginning and end of our life both are a mystery. All the creatures on this earth are fellow-travellers. None is superior or inferior. We take birth but don’t know from where we have come. We struggle hard for our life in this world for a short period. Then, we go away from this world but do not know where we have to go. This is the journey of our life. [N. B. : Thus, the writer has taught us a lesson of fraternity among all creatures because the mystery and miracle of life are common to all.)

Short Answer Type Questions

Answer one of the following questions in not more than 30 words:
Question 1.
Give a brief description of the train Mr. A.G. Gardiner travelled by. [2009]
(जिस रेलगाड़ी में मि० ए० जी० गार्डनर ने यात्रा की उसका संक्षिप्त विवरण दीजिए)
Answer :
The writer was travelling by a suburban train which ran from London to a Midland Town. It was a stopping train.
(लेकख उपनगरीय रेलगाड़ी से यात्रा कर रहा था यह गाड़ी मीलडलोड के एक -एक कसबे तक जगह -जगह रुक कर जाती थी)

Question 2.
Why did the author call the train as one of those trains which give you an understanding of eternity’ ?
(लेखक ने गाड़ी को ऐसी गाड़ी क्यों कहा है जो अनन्त काल का आभास कराती है ?)
Answer :
The train was running very slow. It stopped at all stations. So, the writer thought that his journey would never end and he called the train as such.
(रेलगाड़ी बहुत धीमी चल रही थी। यह सभी स्टेशनों पर रुकती थी। इसलिए लेखक ने सोचा कि उसकी यात्रा कभी समाप्त नहीं होगी और ऐसा ही उसने गाड़ी के विषय में सोचा।)

Question 3.
What did the author think by the time the train left London ?
(जिस समय गाड़ी लन्दन से रवाना हुई उस समय लेखक ने क्या सोचा ?)
Answer :
When the train left London the author thought that he was all alone in the compartment. So, he was at liberty to do anything he liked.
(जब गाड़ी लन्दन से रवाना हुई तब लेखक ने सोचा कि डिब्बे में वह अकेला है। इसलिए वह कुछ भी करने को स्वतन्त्र है जो वह चाहे।)

Question 4.
What is, according to Mr. A.G. Gardiner, the pleasant sense of freedom about being alone in a compartment ?
(मि० ए० जी० गार्डनर के अनुसार रेल के डिब्बे में अकेला होने पर स्वतन्त्रता का क्या आनन्द प्राप्त होता है ?)
Answer :
According to A.G. Gardiner, the pleasant sense of freedom about being alone in a compartment is that the passenger is free to do what he likes.
(ए० जी० गार्डनर के अनुसार रेल के डिब्बे में अकेला होने पर यात्री को स्वतन्त्रता का यही आनन्द प्राप्त होता है कि वह अपनी पसन्द का कोई भी कार्य करने को स्वतन्त्र है।)

Question 5.
What, according to A.G. Gardiner, are the advantages of travelling alone in a railway compartment ? [2010, 11, 18]
(ए० जी० गार्डनर के अनुसार रेलगाड़ी के डिब्बे में अकेले ही यात्रा करने के क्या लाभ हैं?)
Answer :
According to the author, travelling alone in a compartment, a person could talk easily to himself, sing or dance, play marbles, open or shut windows, walk or lie down at full length on the cushion for rest.
(लेखक के अनुसार रेल के डिब्बे में अकेले यात्रा करते समय व्यक्ति अपने आप से सरलता से बातें कर सकता है, गीत गा सकता है या नाच सकता है, खिड़कियों को खोल या बन्द कर सकता है, टहल सकता है। या आराम करने के लिए गद्दे पर पसर कर लेट सकता है।)

Question 6.
What things would you do if you were travelling alone in a compartment ?
(यदि आप डिब्बे में अकेले यात्रा कर रहे हों तब आप क्या-क्या काम करेंगे ?)
Or
What can one do freely while travelling alone in a carriage of a night train according to A.G. Gardiner ?
(ए० जी० गार्डनर के अनुसार एक रात की गाड़ी में यात्रा करते हुए कोई आजादी से क्या कर सकता है?)
Answer :
If I was travelling alone in a compartment, I could talk myself, sing or dance, open or shut the windows. I could sit in a corner.
(यदि मैं डिब्बे में अकेले यात्रा करू, तो मैं अपने आप से बातें करू, गाऊँ, नाचूँ, खिड़कियाँ खोलें या बन्द करूं। मैं किसी कोने में भी बैठ जाऊँ।).

Question 7.
What does the abbreviation D. O. R. A. stand for?
(D. 0. R. A. को पूरा अर्थ क्या है ?)
Answer :
D. O. R. A. stands for the Defence of the Realm Act which provided the British Government wide power during the Great war.
(D. O. R. A. का अर्थ है ‘राज्य सुरक्षा अधिनियम’ जिसने प्रथम विश्वयुद्ध में ब्रिटिश सरकार को बहुत अधिक शक्ति प्रदान की थी।)

Question 8.
What did the author do while travelling alone in the compartment ?
(लेखक जिस समय डिब्बे में अकेला यात्रा कर रहा था तब उसने क्या किया?)
Answer :
While travelling alone in the compartment, the author put down his paper, stretched his arms and legs, stood up and looked out of the window, lit a cigar, sat down and began to read the paper again.
(जब लेखक डिब्बे में अकेला यात्रा कर रहा था तब उसने अपना अखबार रख दिया। अपने हाथ-पैर फैलाये, खड़ा हुआ और खिड़की से बाहर देखा, सिगार जलाया, फिर बैठ गया और पुन: अखबार पढ़ने लगा।)

Question 9.
Who was A.G. Gardiner’s fellow-traveller ? When did the author become aware of his fellow-traveller ? [2012, 16, 18]
(लेखक का साथी यात्री कौन था ? लेखक को अपने साथी यात्री का पता कब चला ?)
Answer :
A. G. Gardiner’s fellow-traveller was a mosquito. The author became aware of his fellow-traveller when he was reading the newspaper and mosquito sat on his nose.
(लेखक का साथी यात्री एक मच्छर था। लेखक को अपने साथी यात्री का पता उस समय चला जब वह अखबार पढ़ रहा था और एक मच्छर उसकी नाक पर बैठ गया।)

Question 10.
What did the author do when the fellow-traveller came and sat on his nose?
(जब साथी यात्री, आकर लेखक की नाक पर बैठ गया, तब लेखक ने क्या किया ?)
Answer :
When the fellow-traveller came and sat on his nose, he flicked it off.
(जब साथी यात्री आकर उसकी नाक पर बैठ गया तब उसने उसे झटके के साथ फेंक दिया।)

Question 11.
What did the author say when the mosquito seated himself impudently on the back of his hand ? [2011]
(जब मच्छर धृष्टतापूर्वक हाथ के पिछली ओर बैठ गया तब लेखक ने क्या कहा ?)
Or
Why did the writer decide to punish the fellow-traveller ? [2011, 18]
(लेखक ने सहयात्री को दण्डित करने का निश्चय क्यों किया?)
Answer :
The author said that the limit of magnanimity was over. He would punish him by putting him to death.
(लेखक ने कहा कि उदारता की सीमा समाप्त हो गई है। वह उसे मृत्युदण्ड देगा।)

Question 12.
Why did justice demand the award of death sentence ?
(न्याय की माँग मौत की सजा क्यों थी ?)
Answer :
There were many charges against the mosquito. It was a vagabond and a public nuisance. He was travelling without ticket and sucking the blood of the author. So, justice demanded the award of death sentence.
(मच्छर के विरुद्ध बहुत-से आरोप थे। वह आवारा और लोक कंटक था। वह बिना टिकट यात्रा कर रहा था और लेखक का खून चूस रहा था। इसलिए न्याय की माँग थी कि उसे मृत्यु-दण्ड मिले।)

Question 13.
What did the fellow-traveller do to avoid the sentence of death?
(मृत्यु-दण्ड से बचने के लिए साथी यात्री ने क्या किया ?)
Answer :
To avoid the sentence of death the fellow-traveller dodged the author and ran away.
(साथी यात्री ने लेखक को चकमा दे दिया और भाग गया।)

Question 14.
Why did the author feel humiliated and how did he react to it?
(लेखक ने स्वयं को अपमानित क्यों अनुभव किया और इसके प्रति उसकी क्या प्रतिक्रिया थी ?)
Answer :
The author felt humiliated because the mosquito avoided his blow cunningly. Then, he adopted all sorts of tactics to kill him.
(लेखक ने अपमानित इसलिए अनुभव किया, क्योंकि अपराधी चालाकी से उसके मुक्के से बच गया। फिर लेखक ने उसे मारने के लिए प्रत्येक चाल चली।)

Question 15.
Who was the “skilful matador finessing round an infuriated bull ?” And who was the ‘infuriated bull’ ?
(क्रुद्ध साँड़ से भिड़ने वाला चतुर पहलवान कौन था ? और क्रुद्ध साँड कौन था ?)
Answer :
The mosquito was skilful matador and the author was infuriated bull.
(मच्छर चतुर पहलवान था और लेखक क्रुद्ध साँड था।)

Question 16.
Why according to the author, did the fellow-traveller disturb his repose ?
(लेखक के अनुसार उसके साथी यात्री ने उसकी शान्ति क्यों भंग की ?)
Answer :
The fellow-traveller was enjoying himself. So, the author thought that he had disturbed his repose.
(साथी यात्री अपनी मनोरंजन कर रहा था। इसलिए उसने लेखक की शान्ति को भंग किया।)

Question 17.
What did the author begin to think when he found himself so helpless and stupid against his fellow-traveller ?
(जब लेखक ने अपने सहयात्री से निपटने में स्वयं को इतना असहाय और मूर्ख पाया तब वह क्या सोचने लगा ?)
Answer :
The author began to enter into the spirit of his fellow-traveller when he found himself, so helpless and stupid.
(जब लेखक ने स्वयं को इतना असहाय और मूर्ख पाया तब उसने सहयात्री की मन की स्थिति को समझने की चेष्टा की।)

Question 18.
Why did he decide to be magnanimous and merciful to the fellow traveller?
(उसने (लेखक) ने अपने सहयात्री के प्रति इतना उदार और दयावान होने का निश्चय क्यों किया ?)
Answer :
The author wanted to make up his lost prestige. So, he decided to be magnanimous and merciful to the fellow-traveller because these were the noblest virtues of mankind.
(लेखक अपना खोया हुआ सम्मान प्राप्त करना चाहता था। अत: उसने सहयात्री के प्रति उदार और दयावान होने का निश्चय किया, क्योंकि मानव जाति के ये सबसे अच्छे दो गुण हैं।)

Question 19.
What did the author think of the fellow-traveller when the latter sat on the newspaper ?
(जब सहयात्री अखबार पर बैठ गया तब लेखक ने क्या सोचा ?)
Answer :
When the fellow-traveller sat on the newspaper, the author thought him to be foolish. He thought to kill him but he let him go.
(जब सहयात्री अखबार पर बैठ गया तब लेखक ने उसे मूर्ख समझा। उसने उसे मारने की बात सोची, किन्तु उसे क्षमा कर दिया।)

Question 20.
What relationship did the author develop with his fellow-traveller ?
(लेखक ने अपने सहयात्री से क्या सम्बन्ध विकसित किया ?)
Or
Who was the fellow-traveller ? What relationship did the author develop with the fellow-traveller ?
(सहयात्री कौन था ? लेखक ने अपने सहयात्री से क्या सम्बन्ध विकसित किया ?)
Answer :
The author developed a distant relationship with his fellow-traveller. He said that they were fellow-mortals. A mosquito was the fellow-traveller.
(लेखक ने अपने सहयात्री से दूर का रिश्ता विकसित किया। उसने कहा कि वे दोनों साथी नश्वर प्राणी हैं। सहयात्री एक मच्छर था।)

Question 21.
Do you like this essay or not ? Give reasons.
(क्या आप इस निबन्ध को पसन्द करते हैं ? कारण दीजिए।)
Answer :
Yes, I like this essay because it teaches us a great moral ‘Live and let live’. Moreover, it is written in a simple language. It is delightful and instructive. It condemns superiority complex.
(हाँ, मैं इस निबन्ध को पसन्द करता हूँ, क्योंकि वह ‘जियो और जीने दो’ को महान् पाठ पढ़ाता है। इसके अतिरिक्त यह सरल भाषा में लिखा गया है। यह मनोरंजक एवं शिक्षाप्रद है। यह उच्च भावना के विचार को भी त्यागती है।)

Question 22.
Explain the following:
(निम्नलिखित का वर्णन कीजिए :
(a) “I assume the black cap …………… awards it.”
(b) “It was all in vain ………….. bull.”
(c) “The miracle of life …………… about mine.”
Answer :
(a) The author supposes himself a judge sentencing the mosquito to death because there are many capital charges against it. He also says that his decision is legal and justified.
(b) The author wanted to kill the mosquito. But his all efforts failed and the mosquito went on enjoying this fight. In this fight the writer himself behaved like an angry bull and the mosquito like a skilful matador.
(c) In the end the author realised that life is the greatest miracle of nature. The life of all creatures in this world is like a journey. But none knows its purpose. This truth applies to both of them, i.e. the author and the mosquito.
[(a) लेखक अपने आप में कल्पना करता है कि एक न्यायाधीश के रूप में वह इस मच्छर को मृत्युदण्ड दे सकता है क्योंकि उसके विरुद्ध बहुत-से आपराधिक मामले हैं। वह यह भी कहता है कि उसका निर्णय कानूनी एवं न्यायपूर्ण है। (b) लेखक मच्छर को मार देना चाहता है लेकिन उसके सभी प्रयास असफल हो जाते हैं और मच्छर इस युद्ध का आनन्द लेता रहता है। इस युद्ध में लेखक स्वयं एक क्रोधी बैल की भाँति व्यवहार करता है जबकि मच्छर एक चालाक साँड़ की तरह।
(c) अन्त में लेखक यह महसूस करता है कि जीवन प्रकृति का एक महानतम चमत्कार है। इस संसार में सभी प्राणी एक यात्री के समान हैं लेकिन कोई भी इसके उद्देश्य को नहीं जानता है। यह सत्य लेखक तथा मच्छर दोनों के लिए लागू होता है।

Question 23.
‘Magnanimity has its limits,’ who said it and why ? [2017]
(उदारता की भी सीमा होती है, यह शब्द किसने कहे और क्यों ?)
Answer :
The author said it because he was angry with his fellow-traveller, i.e. mosquito who was continuously disturbing him.
(लेखक ने यह शब्द कहे, क्योंकि वह अपने साथी यात्री अर्थात् मच्छर से बहुत नाराज था जो उसे लगातार परेशान कर रहा था।)

Question 24.
Who was the fellow-traveller of the author and where did he sit ?
(लेखक का सहयात्री कौन था और वह कहाँ बैठा था ?)
Answer :
A mosquito was the fellow-traveller of the author. He sat on the back of his hand.
(लेखक का सहयात्री एक मच्छर था। वह लेखक के हाथ की पिछली ओर बैठा था।)

Question 25.
When did the author, A.G. Gardiner, feel that he was not superior to the mosquito ? [2015]
(लेखक ए०जी० गार्डनर ने कब महसूस किया कि मच्छर उससे श्रेष्ठ है?)
Answer :
Every effort of the author to punish the mosquito proved useless. At first, there was vanity in him of being a human. But since he could not do anything against him, his superiority began to fade away from him.
(लेखक को मच्छर को दण्डित करने का प्रत्येक प्रयास असफल रहा। पहले, उसमें एक मानव होने का घमण्ड था। लेकिन जब वह उसने आगे कुछ नहीं कर सका, तो उसकी श्रेष्ठता कम होने लगी।)

Vocabulary

Choose the most appropriate word or phrase that best completes the sentence :
1. The train by which A.G. Gardiner travelled stopped at ………… stations.
(a) big
(b) suburban
(c) small
(d) road side

2. There is a pleasant sense of freedom ………… being alone in a carriage that is jolting noisily through the night. [2010]
(a) of
(b) over
(c) for
(d) about

3. Indeed you can go on opening them and shutting them as a sort of …………. of freedom.
(a) festival
(b) occasion
(c) function
(d) chance

4. Magnanimity has its ………….
(a) end
(b) no end
(c) limits
(d) uses

5. You are a vagrant, you are a public ………….., you are travelling without ticket.
(a) servant
(b) man
(c) individual
(d) nuisance

6. I (A.G. Gardiner) felt my heart warming towards him and the sense of ………… fading. [2018]
(a) superiority
(b) inferiority
(c) kindness
(d) sympathy

7. Magnanimity and mercy were the noblest …………. of man.
(a) qualities
(b) characteristics
(c) traits
(d) attributes

8. I cannot kill you but I can ………. you. [2015, 17, 18]
(a) reprieve
(b) forgive
(c) punish
(d) condemn

9. Fortune has made us fellow-travellers on this …………. night.
(a) summer
(b) winter
(c) dark
(d) moonlit

10. I have ……….. you and you have …………. me.
(a) interested, disturbed
(b) disturbed, interested
(c) interested, entertained
(d) entertained, interested

11. The author one evening …………. a passenger train.
(a) mounted
(b) climbed
(c) boarded .
(d) got up

12. As I closed the door of the compartment, I saw my.. ……….. fluttering round the lamp. [2011]
(a) mosquito
(b) friend
(c) companion
(d) fellow-traveller

13. I felt my heart warming towards him and the sense of superiority …………..
(a) increasing
(b) coming
(c) fading
(d) shining

14. I do not know which of us got into the; ………… first. [2016, 17]
(a) carriage
(b) courage
(c) cartridge
(d) cottage

15. I flicked him ………….. my nose. [2010, 15, 18].
(a) off
(b) of
(c) at
(d) through

16. Justice demands it, and the court ………….. [2010, 18]
(a) declares.
(b) decides
(c) awards
(d) directs

17. You can open the window or shut it without ………….. a protest. [2010]
(a) provoking
(b) calling
(c)picking
(d) getting

18. I cannot go ………….. far as that in christian charity and civility. [2010]
(a) as
(b) too
(c) to
(d) so

19. I went out …………. the cool summer night.
(a) in
(b) for
(c) into
(d) to

20. Istruck a swift, ………….. blow with my right hand. [2011]
(a) gentle
(b)big
(c) lethal
(d) normal

21. How could I feel ………… to a creature who was so manifestly my master in the only competition we had ever enjoyed.
(a) inferior
(b) greater
(c) better
(d) superior

22. He played false ………….. me openly. [2013, 17]
(a) for
(b) with
(c) in
(d) by

Answers :
1. (b)
2. (d)
3. (a)
4. (c)
5. (d)
6. (a)
7. (d)
8. (a)
9. (a)
10. (C)
11. (e)
12. (d)
13. (c)
14. (a)
15. (a)
16. (c)
17. (a)
18. (d)
19. (c)
20. (c)
21. (d)
22. (b).

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