Chapter 2 Unseen Passage
From U.P. Board Examination Papers
(a) Summary : Permanent success can by attained only by self help. Generally people blame others for their failure while a man of self help never blames others. he analyses his own actions and tries to overcome his own short comings. He does not rest till he succeeds in his aim. Thus not only his friends but also his enemies congratulate him.
(b) A suitable title to the given passage may be ‘Self Help’.
(i) Many people regard others responsible for their own failures.
(ii) We should never rest till we achieve success.
(d) We should never rest till we achieve success.
(e) A man of self help never blames others for his failures but analyses his own actions to overcome his shortcomings. (2012)
(b) The sick man will refuse to touch the most delicious food. He would imagine him to be happy if he is as healthy as even his lowest servant who is not sick. The reason is the healthy servant enjoys whatever coarse cheap or little food he gets.
(c) Health is Wealth
(i) Cannot out weigh the suffering of the sick. All the joys that life can give cannot be more in importance than the suffering of the sick. In other words the suffering of the sick exceed many times the joys.
(ii) The miserable beggars with health sleep sweetly. The beggars lead a miserable life. The reason is they are devoid of every comfort. Yet they possess one thing that surpasses all the scarcities and that is their being healthy. They have a sound sleep while lying on hard stony floor without any mattress to lie on and quilt to cover themselves and protect against cold.
(e) Summary : Loss of health is the greatest misfortune. Silken bed, tasty and choicest foods and all the wealth will be useless for him. He will not be able to enjoy sound sleep. While the poorest man who eats a piece of dry bread and has no comfort except good health, will enjoy a sound sleep and will be full of happiness. Thus, health is the greatest boon for everybody. (2012)
(a) Sir Waltered Raleigh smoked tobacco.
(b) The servant rushed up to his master with water because seeing his master smoking, he thought that his clothes must have caught fire.
(c) When the servant saw the clouds of smoke he rushed to his master and poured water on him.
(d) Summary : Sir Walter Raleigh was fond of smoking tobacco. He was the first man to indulge in the habit of smoking tobacoo in England. One day his servant saw him smoking. He thought his master’s clothes had caught fire. So he threw a bucket full of water over his master and ran to bring more.
(e) A suitable title to the given passage may be ‘A Faithful Servant’. (2012)
(a) Summary : In this passage the writer describes that Napoleon never lost heart in difficulties and discouragements of life but he faced them and marched forward. This is the golden rule of successes and victories for all heroes. The writer prescribes this rule for all kinds of people of the world. We should never be discouraged in any type of odds of life. The man who is always marching forward will win over all misfortunes and losses. So remember that continuous efforts to recover the loss by new energy and new action will brighten your life.
(b) A suitable title to the above passage may be ‘The Golden Rule of Life.’
(i) however stormy …………. dark the way even in the odds of life and in uncertainty.
(ii) be up and ………….. new action. We should always work hard with new energy to recover the loss.
(d) Our motto should be ‘Press on!’.
(e) ‘To press on’ solves the problem of all the heroes. (2012)
(a) Summary : In this passage the writer tells us that to enter the kingdom of God exemplary human conduct, ethical values and God-fearning conduct are necessary. Wealth has nothing to do with it. Wealth, in reality, is a great obstacle because a wealthy man commits moral crimes without which he cannot gather wealth. These crimes may remain hidden temporarily. But when they come to light, all the secrets are revealed and he is bound to live behind bars instead of reaching the kingdom of God.
(b) A suitable title to the given passage may be ‘The Way to the Kingdom of God.’
(i) A rich man is deprived of the wisdom and sensibility to accept a fundamental truth about human life.
(ii) When the secrets of a wealthy man are revealed.
(d) A real and good life is a life which has examplary human conduct, ethical values and God fearing demeanour.
(e) Money alone cannot bring happiness, to human life because a rich man commits moral crimes to gather more and more money and ignores other qualities of human life which bring real happiness.(2012)
(a) Summary : Physical pollution has adversely affected not only our body but mind also. The nobility of character has become a thing of the past. We have become purely materialistic due to scientific and technological development and increase in wealth. We have gone very far from spiritualism and are completely engrossed in earning, spending and increasing money.(b) A suitable title for the passage may be ‘Materialism Versus Spiritualism’.
(i) Materialism…us = Now a days we have become completely money minded and are busy in earning and spending money.
(ii) accumulation…end all = Our main aim is to gather and increase money.
(d) The pollution of physical environment has contaminated our minds.
(e) Materialism is sounding the final death knell of humanism. (2013)
(a) The greatest misfortune that can befall a man is the loss of health.
(b) The given phrase means that a sick person will dream to enjoy the health even of his poorest servant.
(i) Cannot out weigh the suffering of the sick. All the joys that life can give cannot be more in importance than the suffering of the sick. In other words the suffering of the sick exceed many times the joys.
(ii) The rich man when sick would not accept the delicious dishes and out of apathy withdraw his hand.
(d) Gist : Loss of health is the greatest misfortune. Silken bed, tasty and choicest foods and all the wealth will be useless for him. He will not be able to enjoy sound sleep. While the poorest man who eats a piece of dry bread and has no comfort except good health, will enjoy a sound sleep and will be full of happiness. Thus, health is the greatest boon for everybody.
(e) A suitable title to the given passage may be ‘Health—The Greatest Boon.’ (2013)
(a) Marco Polo first discovered a route across Asia to China.
(b) Marco Polo told Europeans about the court of Peking.
(c) Two animals of the Arctic countries are white bear and reindeers.
(d) Summary : First of all Marco Polo discovered a route across Asia to China. He described Burma, Tibet and India and the customs and manners of the people. He described the cold Arctic countries also. Marco’s discoveries and descriptions stirred men up to find out more about this outside world.
(e) A suitable title to the passage may be ‘Marco Polo A Great Discoverer’. (2013)
(a) Summary : In this passage the writer advises us that we should not read books for amusement only. We should read great literature with deeper qualities. Books which give intellectual food and make an appeal to the higher emotions and to the intellect are included in great literature.
(b) A suitable title to passage may be ‘Books Worth Reading’.
(c) Explanation : Wine-drinking and opium-smoking give temporary happiness till there is their effect. In the same way the amusement obtained from cheap books is temporary till we are reading the book.
(d) A young man with university education should read a book with the aim of obtaining intellectual food and an appeal to the higher emotions.
(e) The books which give only amusement and have no deeper qualities should not be read. (2013)
(a) The money-minded men and women believe that it is foolishness to exert themselves for such study and brain work as cannot be converted into cash.
(b) Their rule of life is ‘Hard work only for money and then plenty of play and pleasure’.
(c) The old working woman complained to the author that her son was habitual of wasting money on buying books. He was a carpenter, not a school master.
(d) The psychology of material prosperity is deep rooted in the majority of people in society.
(e) Main idea : Generally the people are money-minded and they want to work hard only when they get money. They apply their intellect in getting material prosperity and give no importance to personal mental development. This psychology is deep rooted in all classes of society. (2014)
(a) We can live a better life by adjusting ourselves properly well with other people. (b) The herd instinct brings animals closer together.
(c) Explanation :
(i) Herd instincts means to behave and think like the majority.
(ii) All animals crowd together in a small space under the same tree to protect them from wind or rain.
(d) Summary : We should live together in the society as companions of one another. We should not be centred up to our own resources. We should learn a lesson from animals how they adjust themselves like companions and enjoy security, warmth and comfort. Group instinct will always be more useful for us.
(e) A suitable heading to the given passage may be ‘Togetherness’. (2014)
(a) A suitable heading to the given passage may be ‘Be Charitable’.
(b) Explanation :
(i) Fully satisfied.
(ii) If you are generous to give your any thing to a needy freely and lovingly.
(c) Summary : The thirsty horses go to a beautiful stream and pacify their thirst by drinking water. Then they make the water of the stream dirty by turning their back upon it or by stamping in it. Then the horses go out. But the stream at once floats away the mud and allows other creatures to pacify their thirst. This is the generosity of the stream. So we should learn a lesson from the stream and be charitable without expecting any reward or gratitude.
(d) The horses pollute the water after satisfying their thirst. This is the price they pay.
(e) This life is meant for sowing and scattering seed, not for reaping the produce. (2014)
(a) The main function of a newspaper is to supply us with all sorts of news, local and foreign.
(b) In a country without newspaper, the people of that country will remain totally ignorant of the affairs of the world. (c) The newspapers can be given a name ‘Contemporary History’ in modern times.
(d) Explanation :
(i) Without newspapers we will be totally ignorant of the world affairs.
(ii) We remain aware of the latest news.
(e) Summary : Newspapers are really a part and parcel of modern life. They supply us local and foreign news of every part of the world. They bring us into close touch with one another and promote friendly feelings. They create a link between the rulers and the ruled. Newspapers are the best source of expressing the grievances and views of people and vice versa.
(f) A suitable title to the passage may be ‘Benefits of Newspapers’. (2014)
(a) The wish of the author is to have ‘smile’ if he were to be born into this world again.
(b) The author admires the right kind of smile because there is nothing so irresistible as the right sort of smile.
(c) A pleasant smile is better than riches because it can carry us anywhere and can win us anything including riches.
(d) A good smile disarms our enemies and makes them forget that they have a grudge against us.
(e) The author illustrates the effect of a pleasing smile by narrating a short story of a public man who forgot the reasons of disliking the author’s friend whenever he was with him. (2014)
(a) Some people want students to do nothing but add to their knowledge as they think that the aim of education is merely to give knowledge.
(b) Real function of education is to make all-round development of men. Education should be such that not only the person gets benifit but the society and country as a whole should be benefitted.
(c) The three aims of education are to give men knowledge, make them self-reliant and they should be able to serve others.
(d) Education should not produce citizens who love their own freedom and take away the freedom of others. It should not make men who want to harm other countries.
(e) A suitable title is “Role of Education”. (2015)
(a) In this passage it is discussed how speaker should interact with his audience in order to have positive impact on them.
(b) Sometimes speakers suffer from superiority complex and deliver the talk like great teachers and wise preachers.
(c) Humility is a virtue that is universally appreciated and reciprocated.
(d) The audience should feel wiser and uplifted after listening the speech. They should have positive impact of the speech on them.
(e) ‘Assume air’ means to have particular feeling. ‘Superiority Complex’ means feeling that makes you feel better than others ‘Doling out means to give something to others. (2015)
(a) Suitable title is ‘Meaning of Liberty’
(i) While enjoying our liberty, we should take care of others, liberty as well. For this we should adjust ourselves for others. We should sometimes give away our enjoyment and take tough condition in order to enjoy liberty in real sense.
(ii) Liberty means enjoying our freedom with appropriate checks and balances.
(c) Summary : Liberty means freedom to do our work as we wish but we should not harm others while doing so. This means we should take care of limits of liberty. Man is born free but everywhere he is in chains. Liberty means we should put restriction on us if others’ liberty is harmed. We should respect others’ point of view and should not show our supremacy in all decisions taken in public.
(d) Man should not be allowed to commit crimes in the name of liberty so that others’ safety is maintained. Others should not be harmed in the name of liberty.
(e) Liberty means enjoying our freedom with appropriate checks and balances. (2015)
(a) Indian muslins were found wrapped around mummies in Egyptian Pyramids dating back to 3,000 B.C.
(b) Indian iron and steel industry is too old as Damascus steel for swords and armour used in the crusades came from India.
(c) During the eighteenth century, many of the finest British warships were built in India.’
(d) Crusade means a long and determined effort to achieve something in order to start or stop some activity.
(e) Indian industrial advancement and excellence in art and craft ebb out due to political disintegration and foreign conquest. (2015)
(a) Early rising gives us good start in our day work.
(b) In the early morning the mind is fresh and there are few sounds or other distractions. So the work done in the early morning is well done.
(c) The early riser by beginning early is left with plenty of time to do all his work thoroughly. Therefore he is not tempted to hurry over his day’s work.
(d) The early riser finishes his work in good time and has long interval of rest in the evening. This enables him to go to bed at the proper time.
(e) A suitable title is “Benefits of Rising Early.” (2015)
(a) Suitable heading is “Drawbacks of rising and sleeping late”.
(i) In the morning fresh air and cool environment give you a feeling of less tiredness or less hotness. It is pleasent when felt and gives you a fresh feeling.
(ii) Doing work in midnight.
(c) Summary : Rising early in the morning and avoiding midnight working habit is good for one’s health. When we get up early we have enough time to complete our work. We can have proper exercise which is good for our health. One who is habitual of working midnight cannot produce good results. Few persons say that they work with clear brain at midnight but they are not aware of the concequences of working late when body needs rest. They soon loose their good health.
(d) Early rising is better than rising late because man who rises late, can have little rest in the course of the day and devoid of evening exercise which is so important. He cannot take advantage of refreshing hours of the morning.
(e) Those who work into midnight soon loose their health and bad health has a bad effect on the quality of their work. (2015)
(a) Gautam Buddha left home at the age of twenty-nine.
(b) Buddha fasted in order to seek true path.
(c) The meaning of ‘nirvana’ is the state of peace and happiness that a person gets after giving up his all desires. ‘Englightened one’ means to attain true knowledge.
(d) Summary : Gautam Buddha was the son of the ruler of a small state in northern India. He was married and had a son. He left his home at the age of twenty-nine to attain true knowledge. He wandered on and finally while sitting under a tree he became ‘the Buddha’ or ‘the Enlightened one’. He entered ‘nirvana’ and came out of the process of rebirth.
(e) Suitable title is ‘Enlightenment of Buddha. (2015)
(a) Now there is hardly any sphere of human life where computers have not been pressed into service of man. Computers will become part of man’s daily life.
(b) Automation helps human beings in every sphere by doing work very accurately and at a high speed.
(c) In future small computers will be carried in pocket. They will inform weather condition, traffic routes, and the nature of patient’s illness. They will relieve the people of their tedious work. Thus they will be called the most efficient servants of man.
(d) In future small computers will be developed easy to be carried in pocket anywhere.
(e) A suitable title to the given passage may be ‘Bright Future of Computers.’ (2016)
(a) A suitable title to the given passage may be ‘Miseries of Riches’.
(i) fearing ………….. the lambs.: The night of a rich man is full of various miseries. He fears that people who are own may revolt against us and may kill also.
(ii) No sooner ……….. new care. A rich man can’t sleep peacefully. His night is full of cares. One care ends and another follows.
(c) Husband and wife had so many cares e.g care of new guests, care of people in power, care of thieves, care of future amenities etc.
(d) Writer’s idea is that riches keep a man restless all the twenty four hours. He sleeps on the pillow of cares.
(e) There was no happiness in their life UMBRARY because due to riches they had various types of cares. They were always restless and had no time even to hear of their soul or pray to God. (2016)
(a) A suitable title to the given passage may be ‘Poverty is a Blessing’.
(i) moan about poverty: become sad in poverty.
(ii) governesses : a woman employed to teach young children in their home.
(c) Summary : Most of the people do not like poverty. When they compare themselves to the rich people, they conclude that money is necessary to buy happiness. But in reality the rich people, even though they have a lot of money to buy anything and many servants to serve them, miss the true happiness. A poor man is free from all those cares, envies, jealousies etc. . from which a rich man can’t get rid of. History tells us that the majority of great, eminent and strong men have come from poor class.
(d) The sons and daughters of the rich should be pitied because they have missed something real and most important but they are not aware of it.
(e) Great men are mostly born in poor families because they live in a very sweet, poor and happy home of honest poverty and use their precious time in working hard to make their life great. (2016)
(a) The life of Shivaji’s was full of action and achievement.
(b) Shivaji’s treatment towards Islam was unique. He loved every Musalman like a Brahmin. He respected all followers of Islam and their holy buildings.
(c) He behaved women in a gentle way.
(d) The role of his guru Ramdas was very great. His guru strengthened the teachings of his mother.
(e) Shivaji built a large and brave army and laid the foundations of an organised state. He shaped the Marathas into a nation. (2016)
(a) A suitable title to the given passage may be ‘An Intelligent Thief”.
(i) a tree …………….. honest person = only an honest man can plant a tree which would have golden fruits.
(ii) so the king pardoned the thief = when the king came to know that he was also not an honest man, he forgive the thief and let him go.
(c) The pre-condition was that the person who would plant the tree should be honest.
(d) The king pardoned him because he came to know that he also was dishonest.
(e) From the story we learn a lesson that before blaming others, we should first see ourselves whether we are free from that evil. (2016)
(a) Summary : In this passage, the writer advises the students to be diligent. This quality of being diligent includes all qualities which a student should have. He also tells them that the young age is the golden period of life. So they should develop good qualities in this period so that their future life i.e. adult hood and old age also should be joyful.
(b) A suitable title to the given passage may be ‘Be Diligent.
(c) Explanations :
(i) not what ………… today ………… the explanation which modern people give.
(ii) seed time of life …………. starting period of life when we can grow primary virtues to make future life good.
(d) In our life time we should sow the seed which may give good reap. This is the seed of diligence.
(e) I can say that life depends on my being diligent because it includes all virtues that a student should have. (2016)
(a) A man who possesses a strong will and a firm determination can steer clear of all dangers and difficulties.
(b) The man who labours hard with a strong resolution and an unshaken will, could achieve success and thus, he is a builder of his own fortune.
(c) Summary : A man who possesses a strong will and firm determination could accomplish success in his life. Man must be persevering and must exert himself to shape out his destiny. Man who does not work hard and labour could bring misery and suffering to himself. Thus, to gain wealth, fame and power he must labour with a strong resolution and unshaken will, and thereby could make his own fortune.
(d) Resolution here means strong determination. A man who works hard with a strong resolution and powerful will accomplish success. Industrious means laborious or hard working. By being industrious and persevering one can make his fortune.
(e) A suitable title to the given passage may be A Man of Strong Will. (2017)
(a) Summary : It is undeniably true that in the ultimate measure the deeds done by man in his life time sums up the quality of his life. The span of life is meaningless when measured in years alone. Noble deeds, splendid ideas and fine sentiments, not the number of years, carved a niche for the real man in history.
(b) A suitable title to the given passage may be Live in Deeds not in Years.
(c) A man is memorable by his noble deeds and conscientious efforts.
(d) Noble deeds, splendid ideas and fine sentiments constitute the real glory of the character.
(e) Noble endeavours is an earnest and conscientious effort that a man wants to accomplish his goal. For them, just to eat, sleep and exist is no life at all. They suffer for mitigating the miseries of others and for the good of humanity. Trivial pursuits is an activity that one engages in, which is of no real importance.
(a) The real ornamentation for the women lies not in loading the body with metal and stone but in purifying the heart and developing the beauty of soul.
(b) Author’s advice to the women of India is to get rid of their jewellery.
(c) He/She who does not offer sacrifice of his or her wealth has been termed as a thief according to the Bhagvad Gita.
(d) Some women feel more happy in sacrificing their possessions to help the poor and needy person.
(e) Summary : The real beauty of a woman is her character, her purity not a jewellery. Woman like Sati, Savitri and Damayanti have become sacred to us for their unsullied virtue not for their ornaments. Bhagavad Gita has termed those people as a thief who do not sacrifice their wealth to the poor and needy persons. It is a social and religious obligation for every men and women. There can be no sacrifice higher than to clear out the distinctions of high and low and to maintain the equality of men and women. The women of India should realize the value of ornamentation which lies not in wearing the jewellery but in purifying the heart and developing the beauty of soul. (2017)
(a) A polling station is a suitable building away from the town, situated in some lonely spot.
(b) The after-effects of the elections that we gather from the above are that as soon as the people cast their vote, nobody cares for them. All their importance
vanished. The seed of dissension is sown which is accompanied by the division of the community.
(c) The portions italisized in the passage means that he or she becomes a worthless trifles and nobody cares for them.
(d) Summary : Although elections have an important place in democracy, yet few of them have made it as a funny affair. There is an activity and bustle, hue and cry with a compliments of each and every voter to get a sure success by the candidate. The poll takes place on a certain day at the polling station. Everybody is welcomed like princess but as soon as they cast their vote their importance vanished. Nobody cares for them. The after-effects of the election could also be seen by the arguments, dissension and partisan which is finally accompanied by the division of the community.
(e) A suitable title to the given passage may be ‘An Election Scene’. (2017)
(a) A suitable title to the given passage may be “The Prevention from Food Adulteration’.
(b) Summary : Adulteration of food-stuffs was so rampant and widespread that a drastic remedy in the form of or amendment of a comprehensive legislation became the need of the hour. Adulteration can be seen in most of the essential food items like milk, bottled water, tea, coffee and spices etc. Thus, to check ‘this kind of anti-social evil Supreme Court has asked the centre to amend the Indian Penal Code and the Food Safety Standards Act to make this punishable with life imprisonment. It is a much needed hope and relief for the consumers at large.
(c) ‘You are what you eat is the dictum about body and health.
(d) Many Indians have a lot to worry about their health and future generations because of the serious issue like food adulteration.
(e) Food Safety and Standards Authority of India. (2017)
(a) A suitable title to the given passage may be “The Migration of Birds’.
(b) Summery : Migratory birds travel from one region to another depending on the availability of foods, habitat and climatic conditions of a place. These birds usually take their shelter in the country like India to escape from the severe winter of Northern and Central Asia. Migratory birds like small ducks, barheaded geese, Siberian crane and spotted eagle coming here has reduced considerably. So, this has become a great concern for the bird watcher and ornithologist.
(c) Migratory means moving from one place to another at particular times of the year especially by animals like birds of fishes. They travel to countries where they find optimal conditions of food and climate for their survival. Ornithologist is the zoologist who studies birds.
(d) The availability of food, habitat and climatic conditions of a place are the factors which decidei which way the migratory birds will go.
(e) Optimal conditions of food and suitable climate for the survival attracts the migratory birds in India that they choose it as their preferred destination. (2017)
(a) Summary : Speech is a great blessing but it can also be a great curse. Speech, as a blessing helps us to make our intentions and desires, known to fellows, make our attitude completely understood as well as helped to win a friend. But it becomes curse when it is used without any thought. A slip of tongue, the use of unusual word or an ambiguous word may create an enemy. Different classes of people use different vocabularies. So one should be very careful in handling the speech and should express according to the kinds and conditions of men.
(b) A suitable title to the given passage may be ‘Speech, Blessings as well as Curse’.
(c) These types of words are used either without thought or sometimes it may be understood in two or more possible senses respectively.
(d) Speech can be great blessing if it has been used with thought and careful handling. (2017)
(a) Sardar Patel was called the ‘Iron man of India’ because he was a strict and efficient administrator.
(b) In private life, Sardar Patel was kind and considerate. Sometimes, he became emotional even.
(i) Any person could be sure of his being a strict and efficient administrator.
(ii) He was a philanthropist. He profoundly loved all wihout any distiction. Thus he had firm faith in universal love.
(d) Summary : Generally the people opined that Sardar Patel was a man of rough temperament. He was called an Iron man because he was a strict and efficient administrator. But in personal life he was kind and considerate and even emotional. He was a great organiser. He selected proper man and got every work done by him.
(e) ‘Sardar Patel, the Iron man’. (2018)
(a) The children.believe in challenges and possibilities.
(b) When we grow up our inspiration is dampened by the skepticism and realism of society. Our self-doubt also grows up.
(c) We merely exist means we pull on our lives in a half-hearted manner.
(d) Life becomes full of inspiration, involvement and intensity when we do what we love and love what we do.
(e) The law of nature, according to the passage is that everything which loses its purpose ceases to exist becomes extinct. (2018)
(a) We call ourselves civilized because we have the advantages of the inventions of science which our ancestors had never known.
(b) We can become truly civilized by learning to live in peace.
(i) Science has made us full of more worries.
(ii) Adopt the principle of universal fraternity i.e., all the human beings are brothers.
(d) Summary : We do not claim to be civilized because we live and dress better than our ancestors. Science has equipped us with inventions. However science has increased our worries. We fight more fatal wars killing more men than earlier. To be really civilized we must believe in universal brotherhood.
(e) The suitable title is ‘true civilization’. (2018)